TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 28 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 28 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT

Listening Section Directions
This test measures your ability to understand conversations and lectures in English.The Listening section is divided into 2 separately timed parts. In each part you will listen to 1 conversation and 2 lectures. You will hear each conversation or lecture only one time.

After each conversation or lecture, you will answer questions about it. The questions typically ask about the main idea and supporting details. Some questions ask about a speaker’s purpose or attitude. Answer the questions based on what is stated or implied by the speakers.

You may take notes while you listen. You may use your notes to help you answer the questions. Your notes will not be scored. If you need to change the volume while you listen, click on the Volume icon at the top of the screen.

In some questions, you will see this icon: This means you will hear, but not see, part of the question. Some of the questions have special directions. These directions appear in a gray box on the screen.

Most questions are worth 1 point. If a question is worth more than 1 point, it will have special directions that indicate how many points you can receive. You must answer each question. After you answer, click on Next. Then click on OK to confirm your answer and go on to the next question. After you click on OK, you cannot return to previous questions.

A clock at the top of the screen will show you how much time is remaining. The clock will not count down while you are listening. The clock will count down only while you are answering the questions.

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 28 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT

Question 1-5: Answer the questions.

  1. What do the speaker mainly discuss?
    • Why the woman has lite in common with her roommates
    • How the women can keep up in her academic studies
    • The woman’s adjustment to life at the university
    • The woman’s decision to transfer to another university
  1.  Why does the women mention her hometown?
    • To draw a contrast to her current situation
    • To acknowledge that she le accustomed to living in big cities
    • To indicate that she has known some people on campus for long time
    • To emphasize her previous success in academic studies
  1. What does the woman imply about the incident that occurred in her sociology class?
    • She was embarrassed because she gave an incorrect answer.
    • She was upset because the professor seemed to ignore her,
    • She was confused by the organization of the professor’s le
    • She was surprised by the comments of the other students.
  1. According to the counselor, why should the woman visit her professor’s office? Choose 2 answer.
    • To offer a compliment
    • To offer to help other students
    • To introduce herself
    • To suggest ways of making the class more personal
  1. What does the woman imply about joining the string quartet?
    • It would enable her to continue a hobby she gave up when she was ten
    • It would allow her to spend more time in her major area of study
    • It would help her stop worrying about her academic studies
    • It would be a way tomeet students with similar interests

Sociology

Question 6-11: Now answer the question.

6.What is the main purpose of the lecture?

  • To introduce a method that can help students remember new information CD
  • To introduce a way to study how information passes from one person to another CD
  • To explain the differences between biological information and cultural
  • To explain the differences between stories, songs, and other pieces of information

7.Why does the professor tell the story about alligators?

  • To explain the difference between true and false stories CD
  • To draw an analogy between alligator reproduction and cultural transmission CD
  • To give an example of a piece of information that functions as a meme CD
  • To show how a story can gradually change into a song

8.According to the professor, which of the following are examples of mem* transfer? Choose 2 answers.

  • Telling familiar stories
  • Sharing feelings
  • Composing original music
  • Learning a scientific theory

9.What example does the professor give of a meme’s longevity?

  • A story has been changing since it first appeared in the 1930s.
  • A person remembers a story for many years.
  • A gene is passed on through many generations without changing.
  • A song quickly becomes popular all over the world.

10.What does the professor compare to a housefly laying many eggs?

  • A child learning many different ideas from his or her parents
  • Alligators reproducing in New York sewers
  • Different people remembering different versions of a story
  • A person singing the “Twinkle, twinkle” song many times

11.Listen to Track 24.

  • To explain why some memes do not change much
  • To ask the students for their opinion about songs as memes
  • To acknowledge a problem with the meme theory
  • To ask the students to test an idea about memes

Note: The actual lecture contains color images. The colors from one image are discussed by the professor. You do not need to see the color to understand the lecture or to answer the question

Astronomy

12.What is the main purpose of the lecture?

  • To explain why scientists disagree about the age of the Moon
  • To present arguments in favor of another Moon landing
  • To explain how scientists discovered a crater on the far side of the Moon
  • To review some findings of a recent mission to the Moon

13.What does the professor imply about the spacecraft Clementine?

  • It sent back the first color photographs of the Moon.
  • It was powered by solar energy.
  • It landed on the far side of the Moon.
  • It flew over the Moon’s polar regions.

14.Why does the professor mention the Moon’s mantle?

  • To explain how scientists are able to estimate the age of meteor impacts
  • To indicate what part of the Moon could provide key evidence about the Moon’s composition
  • To explain how scientists know that meteors penetrate the Moon’s crust
  • To point out an obvious difference between the Moon and Earth

15.Why is the South Pole-Aitken Basin thought to be exceptionally old?

  • The walls of the Basin are more reflective than those of most other craters.
  • Testing of rocks from the Basin’s floor proved them to be as old as the Moon itself.
  • Many small craters have been detected at the bottom of the Basin.
  • A large amount of dust has been detected in and around the Basin.

16.Why does the professor consider it important to find out if water ice exists on the Moon? Choose 2 answers.

  • Water ice could be processed to provide breathable air for astronauts.
  • One component of water ice could be used as a fuel for rockets.
  • Water ice could contain evidence of primitive life on the Moon.
  • Water ice could be tested to find out what type of meteors crashed into the

17.Listen to Track 26.

  • It is likely that the current age estimates for the South Pole-Aitken Basin arebased on incorrect assumptions.
  • It is disappointing how little the technology to analyze Moon rocks has advanced since the days of the Moon landings.
  • Too few of the original Moon-rock samples were dated accurately.
  • It is important to obtain a more precise determination of the Moon’s age.

Question 18-22

  1. What is the conversation mainly about?
  • An assignment about which the student would like advice
  • Concerns as to whether the student should be in the professor’s course
  • The selection of films to be viewed by students in a film theory course
  • The structure and sequence of courses in the Film Department
  1. What is the professor’s attitude toward the student’s high school film course?
  • He does not consider it satisfactory preparation for the class he teaches.
  • He does not think that literary works should be discussed in film classes.
  • He believes that this type of course often confuses inexperienced students
  • He feels that the approach taken in this course is the best way to learn about
  1. Why was the student permitted to sign up for the professor’s film theory course?
  • Her high school course fulfilled the requirement for previous course work.
  • The computer system that usually blocks students was not working properly.
  • An employee in the department did not follow instructions.
  • The professor made an exception in her case.
  1. Why does the professor decide to allow the student to remain in his class? Choose 2 answers.
  • She needs to take the course in order to graduate.
  • He is impressed with her eagerness to continue.
  • She convinces him that she does have adequate preparation for the course.
  • He learns that she is not studying film as her main course of study

22.What does the professor advise the student to do in order to keep op with the class she is in?

  • Take the introductory course
  • Watch some video recordings
  • Do extra reading
  • Drop out of her marketing class

Chemistry

 

Spectroscopy

Question 23-28: Now answer the question.

23.What is the main-purpose of the lecture?

  • To discuss recent innovations in laboratory equipment
  • To give an example of a practical use for a particular scientific technique
  • To familiarize students with the chemical composition of pamt pigments
  • To show how researchers were able to restore a particular work of art

24.What does the professor imply when he mentions an art historian?

  • Art historians have been learning how to use spectroscopes.
  • Scientists need to learn how art historians analyze paintings.
  • Confirming the authenticity of artworks requires collaboration.
  • Spectroscopic analysis can help identify a painter’s techniques.

25.Why does the professor discuss the presence of zinc in paint pigments?

  •  To explain why some paints may deteriorate over the course of time
  •  To stress the need for caution when attempting to restore old artworks
  •  To show how pigments differ from varnishes and binding agents
  •  To show how spectroscopy can help establish the age of a painting
  1. According to the professor, what is the primary advantage of spectroscopy over other laboratory methods for analyzing artworks?
  • It does not damage the artworks.
  • It provides a more accurate analysis than other methods do.
  • It uses equipment that can be transferred to other locations.
  • It can be used by individuals with little scientific framing.

27.What is one way the professor mentions that chemists can help with art restoration?

  •  By recreating the pigments and binding agents used by artists of earlier eras
  •  By removing pigments and binding agents that dissolve paintings over
  • By creating protective coatings of paint that do not damage original paintings
  • By developing ways to safely remove paint added by previous restoration

28.Listen to Track 29:

  • He is searching for a synonym for the term.
  • He is not sure how much information the students need.
  • He is going to briefly address a related topic.
  • He is giving the students a writing assignment.

Literature

 

Question 29-34: Now answer the question.                                                                                                           

29.What is the lecture mainly about?

  • Oral traditions in folktales and fairytales
  • Common characters and plots in folktales and fairytales
  • Differences between folktales and fairy tales
  • Hidden meanings in folktales and fairytales

30.What does the professor mean when he says that folktales are communal?

  • They vary little from one community to another.
  • They serve to strengthen ties among individuals within a community.
  • They relate important events in the history of a community.
  • They can be adapted to meet the needs of a community.

 

31.Why does the professor clarify the concept of a “fairy” ?

  • To explain the origins of the term “fairy tale”
  • To eliminate a possible definition of the term “fairytale”
  • To support a claim about the function of fairy tales
  • To indicate that fairies are a major element in fairy tales

32.What does the professor say about the setting of fairy tales?

  • The tales are usually set in a nonspecific location.
  • The location is determined by the country of origin of a tale.
  • The tales are set in a location familiar to the author.
  • A storyteller varies the location of a tale depending on the audience.

33.In the lecture, the professor discusses characteristics of folktales and fairy tales. Indicate the characteristics of each type of tale. Put a check in the correct boxes.

 

Folktales Fairy tales
Their appeal is now mainly to children.
The plot is the only stable element.
The tales are transmitted orally.
There is one accepted version.
Characters are well developed.
The language is relatively formal.

 

34.Listen to Track 31.

  • To support the student’s statement
  • To ask the student to clarify her statement
  • To find out if the students know what story the line comes from
  • To clarify the relationship between time and space in fairy tales

Task II: Gap-filling

TRACK 22 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to a conversation between a student and a counselor at the university counseling center. Student

Hi, thanks for seeing me on such short [………………………………. ].

Counselor

No problem. How can I help?

Student

Well, I think I might’ve made a [……………………………… ] coming to this school.

Counselor

What makes you say that?

Student

I m a little [ ]by the size of this place. I come from a small town. There were only [ …………………..]of us in my high school graduating class. Everyone knew everyone; we

all grew up together.

Counselor

So it’s a bit of a culture shock for you, being one of [……………………………………….. ] students on a big

campus in an [………………………….. ] city.

Student

That’s an understatement. I just can’t get comfortable in class, or in the [………………………………… ], you

know, socially.

Counselor

Hmm, well—let’s start with your [……………………………… ]. Tell me about your classes.

Student

I’m taking mostly introductory [………………………………………. ], and some are taught in these

[………………………… ]lecture halls.

Counselor

And you’re having trouble keeping pace with the [………………………………. ]?

Student

No, in fact, I got an A on my first [………………………………………………. ]paper. It’s just that, it’s so

[………………………… ]. I’m not used to it.

Counselor

Are all your classes impersonal?

Student

Nah … It’s just that, for example, in […………………………………….. ] yesterday, the professor asked a

question. So I raised my hand … several of us raised our hands … and I kept my hand up because

I did the reading and knew the answer. But the professor just [……………………………………………. ]his own

question and continued with the lecture.

Counselor

Well, in a big room, it’s [……………………………… ]he didn’t notice you. Maybe he was trying to save

time. In either case, 1 wouldn’t take it personally.

Student

I suppose. But I just don’t know how to, you know, [……………………………….. ]myself.

Counselor

Why not stop by his office during office hours?

Student

That wouldn’t seem right, you know … taking time from other students who need help.

Counselor

Don’t say that. That’s what office hours are for. There’s no reason you couldn t pop in to say hi, to, uh, to make yourself known. If you’re learning a lot in class, let the professor know. Wouldn’t you [       ]positive feedback if you were a professor?

Student

You’re right. That’s a good idea.

Counselor

OK, uh, let’s turn to your [……………………………. ]life. How’s it going in the dorms?

Student

I don’t have much in common with my [……………………………………. ]or anyone else I’ve

Everyone’s into sports, and I’m more artsy, you know, into music.

[……………………….. ].

Counselor

Ahhh. Have you been playing long?

Student

Since age […………………………….. ]. It’s a big part of my life. At home,

[……………………….. ] member of our community     […………………………. ].

Counselor

You’re not going to believe this! There’s a string quartet on [……………………………………… ]—all students.

And it so happens the […………………………… ]graduated last year. They’ve been searching high and

low for a [………………………………. ], someone with experience. Would you be interested in

[……………………….. ]?

Student

Absolutely! I wanted to get my academic work […………………………………. ] before pursuing my music

here, but I think this would be a good thing for me. I guess if I really want to fit in here, I should find people who love music as much as I do. Thank you!

Counselor

My pleasure.

TRACK 23 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a sociology class.

Professor

Have you ever heard the one about [……………………………… ]living in New York sewers? The story

goes like this: a family went on [………………………………… ]in Florida, and bought a couple of baby

alligators as presents for their children, then returned from vacation to New York, bringing the

alligators home with them as […………………………………………….. ]. But the alligators would

[…………………………………………… ]and find their way into the New York sewer system where they started

reproducing, grew to [……………………………… ] sizes and now [……………………………. fear into sewer

workers. Have you heard this story? Well, it isn’t true and it never […………………………………….. ], but

despite that, the story’s been around since the [……………………………. ].

Or how about the song “Twinkle, twinkle, little star”? You know “Twinkle, twinkle, little star, how I wonder what you are ..Well, we’ve all heard this song. Where am I going with this? Well,

both the song and the story are examples of […… ], and that’s what we’ll talk

about, the theory of memes.

A meme is defined as a piece of information copied from person to person. By this definition, most of what you know … ideas, skills, stories, songs … are memes. All the words you know, all

the scientific [……………………………… ]you’ve learned, the rules your parents taught you to

[………………………… ]… all are memes that have been passed on from person to person.

So what? … you may say. Passing on ideas from one person to another is nothing new … Well,

the whole point of defining this familiar process as […………………………………… ]of memes is so that we

can explore its [……………………………. ]with the transmission of genes.

As you know, all living [………………………………. ]pass on biological information through the genes.

What’s a gene? A gene is a piece of biological information that gets copied, or

[………………………… ], and the copy, or replica, is passed on to the new [………………………………….. ]. So

genes are defined as replicators …

Genes are replicators that pass on information about [……………………………….. ]and characteristics of

organisms. By analogy, memes also get replicated and in the process pass on

[………………………… ]information from person to person, generation to generation. So memes are

also [………………………….. ]. To be a successful replicator, there are three key characteristics:

longevity [ ], and fidelity. Let’s take a closer look…

First, longevity. A replicator must exist long enough to be able to get copied and

[………………………… ]its information. Clearly, the longer a replicator […………………………………. ], the

better its chances of getting its message copied and passed on. So longevity is a key characteristic of a replicator. If you take the alligator story, it can exist for a long time in [      ]memory let’s say my memory. I can tell you the story now, or ten years

from now. The same with the “Twinkle, twinkle” song. So these memes have [     ], because they’re memorable, for one reason or another.

Next, […………………………………….. ]. Fecundity is the ability to reproduce in large numbers. For example,

the common housefly reproduces by laying several thousand eggs. So each fly gene gets copied thousands of times. Memes? Well, they can be reproduced in large numbers as well. How many times have you sung the “Twinkle, twinkle song to someone? Each time you replicated the song- and maybe [ ]it along to someone who didn’t know it yet, a small child maybe.

And finally, […………………………….. ]. Fidelity means accuracy of the copying process. We know

fidelity is an [……………………………. ]principle of genetic transmission. If a copy of a gene is a bn

different from the original, that’s called a genetic [……………………………….. ], and mutations are usually

bad news. An organism often cannot survive with a mutated gene—and so a gene usually cannot

be passed on unless it’s an [………………………….. ]copy. For memes, however, fidelity is not always

so important. For example, if you tell someone the alligator story I told you today, it

[………………………… ]won’t be word for word exactly as I said it. Still, it will be basically the

same story, and the person who hears the story will be able to pass it along. Other memes are

[………………………… ]with higher fidelity, though-like the “Twinkle, twinkle song. It had the exact

same words twenty years ago as it does now. Well, that s because we see songs as something that

has to be performed [………………………….. ]each time. If you change a word, the others will usually

bring you in line. They’ll say, “That’s not how you sing it,” right?

So, you can see how looking at pieces of cultural information as [……………………………………. ]; memes,

and […………………………………….. ]them in terms of longevity, fecundity, and fidelity, We can some insight

about how they spread, persist, or change.

TRACK 24 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Why does the professor say this:

Professor

If you change a word, the others will usually bring you in line. They’ll say “That’s not how you sing it,” right?

TRACK 25 TRANSCRIPT

Note: The actual lecture contains color images. The colors from one image are discussed by the professor. You do not need to see the colors to understand the lecture or to answer the questions.

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class.

Professor

Last week, we covered some [……………………………. ]against going back to the Moon. But there are

compelling reasons in favor of another Moon landing, too, um, not the least of which is trying to

pinpoint the Moon’s age. We could do this, in theory, by studying an […………………………………… ]impact

crater known as the South Pole-Aitken Basin. Ah, it’s located in the Moon’s south

[………………………… ]region. But, since it’s on the far side of the Moon, it can be seen only from

space. Here’s an image of… we’ll call it the [……………………………… ]Basin.

This color-coded image of the SPA Basin—ah, those aren’t its actual colors, obviously—uh,

this image is from the […………………………………… ], from an American [……………………………… ]called

Clementine. Um, unlike earlier lunar [ ], Clementine didn’t orbit only around

the Moon’s equator. Its […………………………………. ]enabled it to send back data to create this

[………………………… ]map of… well, the gray-and-white area toward the bottom is the South Pole.

The purples and blues in the middle [ ]to low elevations—the SPA Basin

itself. Uh, the oranges and reds around it are higher elevations. The Basin measures an amazing

[………………………… ] kilometers in [………………………………….. ],…………………. and its average depth is

[………………………… ] kilometers. That makes it the biggest known crater in our solar system. And

it may well be the oldest.

You know, [……………………….. ]researchers love studying deep craters to learn about the impacts

that created them, um, how they [……………………………….. ]pieces of the planet’s crust. And, in this

case, we especially want to know if any the [………………………………….. ], the layer beneath the crust,

was exposed by the impact. Not everyone agrees, but some experts are convinced that whatever

created the SPA Basin did […………………………….. ]the moon’s mantle. And we need to find out,

because much more than the [……………………………….. ], the mantle contains information about a

planet’s or moon’s total composition. And that’s key to understanding planet formation. Um, Diane?

Female student

So the only way to know the Basin’s age is to study its [………………………………….. ]directly?

Professor

Well, from radio survey data, we know that the Basin contains lots of smaller craters. So it must

be really old—around […………………………….. ]years, give or take a few hundred million years. But

that’s not very [………………………….. ]. If we had rock samples to study, we’d know whether these

small craters were formed by impacts during the final stages of […………………………………… formation,

or if they resulted from later […………………………… ] showers.

Female student

But if we know around how old the Basin is, I’m not sure that’s reason enough to go to the Moon again.

Professor

Oh, but such […………………………… ]estimates … mmm, we can do better than that! Besides, there’s

other things worth investigating. Like, is there water ice on the Moon? Clementine’s data

[………………………… ]that the wall of a south polar crater was more [……………………………………….. ]than

expected. So some experts think there’s probably ice there. Also, data from a later mission

indicate significant [……………………………… ]of hydrogen, and by […………………………….. ], water, less

than a meter underground at both poles.

Male student

If there’s water, how’d it get there? Underground rivers?

Professor

We think meteors that [……………………………. ]into the Moon, or tails of passing comets, may have

introduced water […………………………… ]. Any water molecules that found their way to the floors of

craters near the Moon’s poles, that water would be [………………………………. frozen because the floors

of those craters are always in shadow. Uh, furthermore, If the water Ice was mixed in with rock and dust, it’d be protected from [………………………………………………………………. ].

Female student

So, are you saying there might be primitive life on the Moon.

Uh, that not my point at all! Um. OK, say there is water ice on the Moon That would be of very

practical value for a future Moon base for [………………………………… ]. Uh, water ice could be melted

and […………………………. ]for drinking. It could also be broken down into its component parts—

oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen could be used to breathe. And hydrogen could be turned into fuel,

[………………………… ] […………………………. ]. So, water ice could enable the crea, on of a self-

sustaining Moon base someday, a mining camp, perhaps, or, uh, a departure point for further space exploration.

But hauling tons of equipment to the Moon to make fuel and build a life-support system for a Moon base … wouldn’t that be too expensive?

Professor

A permanent base, uh, may be a ways off, but we shouldn’t have to wait: for that. The

[………………………… ]at the bottom of the SPA Basin really does have a fascinating story to te .

Why wouldn’t give for a few samples of it!

TRACK 27 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.

Student

Hi. I was wondering if could talk with you about the assignment in the Film Theory class?

Professor

Of course, Jill.

Student

It seems that pretty much everyone else in the class gets what they’re […………………………………. ]to be

doing, but I’m not so sure.

Professor

Well, the class is for students who are really […………………………………… ]about film. You must have

taken film courses before?

Student

Yeah, in high school, Film […………………………….. ].

Professor

Hmm, I wouldn’t think that’d be enough. Did you [………………………………………… ]mainly on form, or

content?

Student

Oh, definitely content. We’d watch, say, Lord of the Flies, and then discuss it.

Professor

Oh, thdt [ ]… treating film as literature, [………………………………………………………………….. ]what makes it

unique … Student

I liked it, though …

Professor

Sure, but that kind of class … well, I’m not surprised you’re feeling a little lost. You know, we have

two introductory courses that are […………………………….. ]to be taken before you get to my course—

one in film art, techniques… technical […………………………………. ]… and another in film history. So

students in the class you’re in should be pretty far along in film studies. In fact, usually the system blocks anyone trying to sign up for a class they shouldn’t be taking, who hasn’t taken the [ ] you’re required to do first, as [         ].

Student

Well, I did have a problem with that, but I discussed it with one of your office [      ]and she gave me [        ].

Professor

Of course. No matter how many times I tell them, they just keep on … Well, for your own good. I’d really suggest dropping back and starting at the usual place …

Student

Yes, but… I’ve already been in this class for four weeks! I’d hate to just drop it now, [        ] since I find it so different, so interesting.

Professor

I guess so—[………………… ], I can’t believe you’ve lasted this long! These are pretty in­depth [     ]we’ve been discussing, and you’ve been doing OK so far, I guess. But,

still, the program’s been designed to progress through certain [……………………………………… ]. Like any

other professional training, we build on previous [……………………………….. ].

Student

Then maybe you could recommend some extra reading I can do, to catch up?

Professor

Well, are you [………………………….. ]to study film, as your main concentration?

Student

No. No, I—I’m just interested; I’m actually in marketing, but there seems to be a

[………………………… ]..

Professor

Oh, well, in that case … if you’re taking the course just out of interest… I mean, I’d still highly recommend signing up for the [………………………………………………………………… ] courses at some point. But in the meantime,

there’s no […………………………… ], I guess, in trying to keep up with this class. The interest is

clearly there. Uh, instead of any extra reading just now, though, you could view some of the old

introductory [ ]—we have ’em on video—that’d give you a better

[……………………………………….. ]on the subject. It’s still a pretty tall order, and we’ll be moving right along,

so you’ll really need to stay on top of it.

Student

OK, I’ve been warned. Now, could I tell you about my idea for the [………………………………… ]…?

TRACK 28 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a chemistry class.

Professor

OK, I know you all have a lot of questions about this lab assignment that’s coming up, so I’m gonna take a little time this morning to discuss it.

So you know the assignment has to do with […………………………………………… ], right? And your readings

should help you get a good idea of what that’s all about. But let’s talk about [        ]a little now, just to cover the basics.

What is spectroscopy? Well, the simplest [………………………………….. ]I can give you is that spectroscopy

is the study of the [……………………………………….. ]between matter and light. Now visible light consists of

different colors, or [ ], which together make up what’s called a

[……………………….. ]—a band of colors, like you see in a [……………………………………………….. ]. And all

substances—all forms of matter— can be […………………………………… ]according to what wavelengths of

light they absorb and which ones they [……………………………….. ]. It’s like—well, every element has

what we’d call its own [……………………………….. ] signature; if we can read that signature, we can

identify the element. And that’s exactly what spectroscopy does.

Now laser spectroscopy, which is the focus of your assignment, works by measuring, very

[……………………….. ], what parts of the [………………………………………. ]are absorbed by different

[……………………….. ]. And it has applications in a lot of different [……………………………………. ]. And your

assignment will be to choose a discipline that interests you and devise an experiment. For example, I’m gonna talk about art—I’m interested in art. And to me, it’s interesting how spectroscopy is used to analyze art.

Let’s say a museum [………………………….. ]comes to you with a problem. She s come across this

painting that appears to be an original—say a Rembrandt—and she wants to acquire it for her museum. But she’s got a problem: She’s not absolutely certain it’s an original. So what do you do? How do you [ ] whether the painting’s [    ]?

OK, think about the scientific [………………………………… ]. You’ve got a question: Is the painting a

Rembrandt? So first, you’d need to make a list of characteristics the painting would have to have

to be a Rembrandt. Then you have to [………………………………… ]whether the […………………………… ]in

question has those characteristics.

So first of all, you’ll need to know the […………………………………………. ]Rembrandt used when he applied

paint to canvas-his [……………………………. ], how thickly he applied his paint-so you’d need to work

with an art […………………………… ]who has expert knowledge of Rembrandt’s style. You’d have to

know when he created his paintings, um, what [………………………………. ]he used-in other words what

[……………………….. ]he used to make different colors of paint. ‘Cause the ingredients used in

paints and […………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ]agents—plus [ ], finishes, what have you—

have changed over time. Since you’re trying to verify if it’s a Rembrandt, the

[……………………….. ]in the pigment would need to have been used during Rembrandt’s lifetime,

in the […………………………………….. ]century. And that’s where chemistry comes in. You’ve got to find out

what’s in those pigments—learn their [………………………………………………. ]. And that requires lab work—

detective work, really—in a word, spectroscopy.

So how do we use spectroscopy? Well, we put an [………………………………. ] [……………………………. ]—a

spectroscope—on tiny, tiny bits of paint, and using [………………………………………… ] light, we can see the

spectral signature of each [………………………………………….. ]part of the pigment. Then we compare these

signatures with those of particular […………………………………. ], like [……………………….. ]or lead, to

determine what the pigment was made of.

So you can see why this type of analysis requires a knowledge of the history of pig-ments, right?

How and when they were made. Say we [……………………………………. ]a pigment was made with zinc, for

example. We know the [………………………………………… ]signature of zinc, and it matches that of the paint

sample. We also know that zinc wasn’t discovered until the […………………………………….. ]century. And

since Rembrandt lived during the seventeenth century, we know he couldn’t’ve painted it.

Now, spectroscopy has a very [……………………………………………… ]advantage over previous methods of

analyzing [………………………….. ]because it’s not […………………………………. ]—you don’t have to remove

big chips of paint to do your analysis, which is what other methods […………………………………. ]. All you

do is train the microscope on tiny [……………………………. ]of paint and analyze them.

Now, a word or two about [……………………………………… ]. Sometimes, original artworks appear

questionable or […………………………………… ]because they’ve had so many restorers add touch-up layers

to cover up damage—damage from the paint having [……………………………………….. ]over time. Well,

spectroscopy can reveal the composition of           those touch-up layers too, so we can find out when

they were [……………………………… ].     Then,             if we want    to   undo       some bad     restoration

[……………………….. ], we can determine what kind of process we          can     use to remove      them—to

[……………………….. ]the paint and uncover the original.

TRACK 30 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class.

Professor

Now, we can’t really talk about [………………………………………. ] [……………………… ]without…. first talking

about folk tales … because there’s a        strong connection between      these two […………………………. ],

these two types of stories. In fact, many fairy tales started out as [……………………………….. ].

So, what’s a folk tale? How would you [………………………………. ]them? Jeff?

Male student

Well, they re old stories, traditional stories. They were passed down orally within cultures, from

[……………………….. ]to generation, so they changed a lot over                           time;   I mean, every

[……………………….. ], or maybe every town, might have had a              […………………. ]different

version of the same folktale.

Professor

That’s right, there’s local difference, and that’s why we say folktales are [………………………………… ].

By “communal,” we mean they reflect the traits and the concerns of a particular community at a

particular time. So […………………………………………. ]the same tale could be told in different communities,

with certain [……………………………. ]of the tale adapted to fit the specific community. Um, not the

plot… the [………………………….. ]of what happens in the story would remain [………………………………… ];

that was the thread that held the tale together. But all the other elements, like the location or characters, might be [……………………………………………………….. for each […………………………… ].

OK, so what about fairy tales? They also are found in most cultures, but how are they different

from […………………………. ]? I guess the first question is what is a fairy tale? And don’t anyone

say, “a story with a fairy in it.” Because we all know that very few fairy tales actually have those tiny [        ]creatures in them. But what else can we say about them? Mary?

Female student

Well, they seem to be less [……………………………………………… ]than folktales. Like they have something

[………………………… ]happening—a frog turning into a prince, say. Oh, that’s another common

[………………………… ], royalty … a prince or princess. And fairy tales all seem to take place in a

location that’s nowhere and everywhere at the same time.

Professor

What’s the line, ah—how do all those stories start? “Once upon a time, in a

[………………………… ]land …” In the case of folktales, each storyteller would

[………………………… ]a particular location and time, though the time and location would differ for

different [……………………………. ]. With fairy tales, however, the location is generally

[………………………… ], no matter who the storyteller is … that “land faraway …” We’ll come back

to this point in a few minutes.

Male student

Um, I thought a fairy tale was just the written [………………………………. ]of an oral folktale.

Professor

Well, not exactly, though that is how many fairy tales developed. For example, in the late

[………………………… ]century, the Grimm brothers traveled throughout what’s now Germany

recording local […………………………… ]. These were eventually published—as fairy tales— but not

before undergoing a process of evolution.

Now, a number of things happen when an oral tale gets written down. First, the

[………………………… ]changes, it becomes more formal, more standard some might say less

[………………………… ]. It’s like the difference in your language depending on whether you’re

talking to someone or writing them a letter.

Second, when an [………………………………. ]      [……………………….. ]story…. is written   down, an

[………………………… ]version, with a recognized author is created. The communal aspect gets lost;

the tale no longer belongs to the community; it belongs to the world, so to speak. Because of this,

elements like place and time can no longer be tailored to suit a particular […………………………………….. ],

so they become less […………………………… ], more […………………………. ]to any audience.

On the other hand, descriptions of characters and settings can be                   […………………………. ]more

completely. In fontales, characters might be [………………………………….. ]by. a name,  but you      wouldn’t

know anything more about them. But in fairy tales, people no longer have to rpm ber plots

they’re written down, right? So more energy can be put into other [……………………………………….. ]of the

story, like character and setting. So you’ get more […………………………………… ]about the charart and

about where the action takes place, what people’s houses were like whether t ey re small

[………………………… ]or grand palaces … And it’s worth investing that energy because the story,

now in book form, isn’t in danger of being lost, those details won’t be […………………………………… ]. If a

folktale isn’t repeated by each […………………………….. ], it may be lost for all time But with a fairy

tale, it’s always there in a book, waiting to be discovered again and again.

Another interesting difference [……………………………………. ]the change in audience—who the stories are

meant for. [ ]to what many people believe today, folktales were originallv

intended for [ ], not for children. So why is it that fairy tales seem

[………………………….. ]toward children nowadays?

 

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 28 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT
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