455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT

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Here is the list 455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT

1 )Prev on(v): to hunt

2) astounding( adi) :amazing/incredible/unbelievable

3) resolute(adi):Determined

4) attain(v): reach 5 leschewtv): avoid

6)Coherent(adi):clear/understandable/intelligible 71Holistic(adi): refers to the whole

8) selective task(phr): multiple-choice task

9) Constructive task(phr):development task

10) thesis(n):opinion/position/claim

11) integral part of(phr):important/essential part of

12) agrarian(adj) related to fields and land and farmers

13) fertile(adj):good for growing/rich in nutrients/productive

14) Enervating(adj): exhausting

15) reliable(adj); can rely on

16) prosper(v):succeed/grow economically

17) assiduous(adj):hard working

18) undergo(v):experience/go or pass through

19) emancipated(adj) :free

20) envisage(v): visualize 21 )innovate(v):develop

22) trailblazer(n):leader/pioneer/pathfinder

23) wary(adj): watchful/cautious

24) versatile(adj): can be used in many ways

25)    inasmuch as(conj.):because/since/owing to the fact that

26)    fundemental(adj): basic/essential/central part of

27)    germinate(v):grow

28)    a myriad of(phr): lots /abundant /great number (e.g: a myriad of courses )

29)    a plethora of(phr):excessive/far too much or many/more than is practical or useful (e.g: a plethora of money problems)

30)    allude to(v): to refer to casually (e.g:in a presidential speech, obama alludes to his wife as his biggest influence in his life)

31)    analogous(adj):related to/connected to/comparable to ( e.g: TOEFL IELTS are analogous)

32)    connote(v): to give meaning beyond literal definition (e.g: breaking mirror connotes to bad luck)

33)    indeed(adv): without a doubt/in fact/certainly.

34)    quite(adv): very/exactly/really (e.g: that’s quite fascinating!/ that’s really fascinating!)

35)    Distractor(n): something that deviates attention/ an answer that looks right but actually wrong.

36)    harbinger(n):sign (e.g: snow is a harbinger of winter)

37)    perch(v);to rest or settle in a high place ( e.g:eagles perch on top of mountains)

38) precarious(adj): dangerous/doubtfull/not secure(e.g:the rope seems precarious,but it’s strong)

39)    quest(n): seek/looking for/search ( e.g: King arthur went on a quest to find the Holly grail)

40)    infer(v): to conclude from facts.

41)    thaw(v): to melt/change from ice to water/warm up

42) keen(adj): very sensitive

43) brood(n): young children of one family ( e.g: the mother bear moved her brood across the river)

44)    impecunious(adj):always poor

45)    bene volent(adj): generous/kind/ good

46)    inveterate(adj):established habit

47)    reimburse(v):pay back

48)    subsit on(v):live on

49)    quite the contrary(phr):the exact opposite

50)    all in all(phr):when everything is considered/in the final analysis/when all is said and done

51)    j udicious(adj): demeonstrating good j udgment

52)    insinuate(v): suggest (The professor insinuated that Joe have to study harder)

53)    suffice it to say(phr):in short/it is enough to say/no more is needed to add

54)    posthumously(adv)rafter death (e.g: micheal jackson is as famous posthumously as he was alive)

55)    hue(n):color(e.g: van gogh used a myriad of hue)

56)    masterpiece(n):great work(e.g: Opera Carmen by george Bizet is a masterpiece)

57)    saturated(adj):dreanched/soaked/full of( That cup of tea is saturated with sugar)

58)    towering(adj):best of the best(James Joyce is a towering literary figure in the west)

59)    snub(v):ignore/avoid/shun( The actress snubbed her fan who wanted an autograph)

60)    mercurial(adj):changing unpredictably (A mercurial temper is a harbinger of trouble)

61)    palette(n): artist’s paint mixing box

62)    shimmer(v): flicker/shine/move like sunlight(I like to watch the sun shimmer on the lake)

63) unerring(adj):never making a mistake (stever jobs is an unerring genius for innovation and marketing)

64)    discombobulated(adj):confused/uncertain/not clear /preplexedt The esay prompt really discombobulated Heather)

65) Dwellig(n):home/place to live/abode

66) Inhabit(v):to live in

67)    Opulent(adj): demostrating great wealth ( some opulent houses are really quite astounding)

68)    Spartan(adj):simple/basic/frugal(Historians belive that the early humans lived a spartan life)

69)    Renounce(v):to give up ( he has renounced somking recently)

70)    Per Capita(phr):per person (what is the per capita income of your country?)

71)    Void of (phr):empty of (the desert is void of water sources)

72)    Contrivances(n):mechanial/electrical/fundemental domestic things

73) Novel(adj):new (noun:story) (The ipad was a novel idea)

74)    Environs(n):environment/place/area ( at night i would avoid certain streets and environs)

75)    Precipitation(n):rain/snow/hail

76)    Drought(n): long period of no precipitation/dryness

77)    Famine(n): extreme lack of food ( Somalia has been suffering from famine for 20 years)

78)    Omen(n): Sign ( Crows represent a bad omen)

79)    Render(v): change/transform/alter

80)    Arable(adj):good for farming( Some believe that an arable land is better than gold)

81)    Arid(adj):Dry/lacking moisture/no water( Arizona is an arid state)

82)    Abandon(v):to give up and leave (The enemy forces has abandoned their posts)

83)    Downfall(n): sudden loss of wealth and power (The king’s position was always precarious.His downfall could happen at anytime)

84)    Destitute(adj) Jacking everything (the people abandoned their land after drought asinmuch as they were left distitute)

85) Notorious(adj):famous for bad behavior.

86) Nefarious(adj):evil/very bad/wicked( El Capone was a notorious mobster who had many nefarious associates)

87)    Pervade(v): to enter all parts ( corruption has pervaded Chicago’s police department)

88) Ruthless(adj):no mercy

89)    Reign(v):to rule like a queen or king/control for a period of time/to excercise authority( Elizabeth the First of England reigned from 1558 to 1603)

90) Unquenchable(adj):always thirsty/unable to satisfy/always desiring more

91)    Repeal(v):seek justice ( Many US citizens want the government to repeal Marijuana laws)

92)    Turbulent(adj): chaotic (The arab world is living a turbulent time)

93)    Corruption(n):process of decay/immoral behavior/gain by breaking the law

94)    Placid(adj):calm and gentle (I love the scene of the placid lake during sunrise)

95)    shatter(v):to break in many pieces (The ball shattered the glass )

96)    Conglomerate(n):company with many large sub divisions of different industries( e.g:General Electric)

97)    Quadruped(n):movement using 4 limbs (cats and dogs are quadruped animals)

98)    Primate(n): mammals int he order of primates including humans and apes

99)    Cosmos(n):the universe <Galaxy :massive groups of stars>

100)    Black Hole(n): massive invisible hole in the space

101)    Comet(n): celestial body with a tail

102)    Asteroid(n): small planet sized rock

103)    Cataclysimic(adj):sudden and violent change/transformation/earth changing event

104)    Whereby(conj):in which (Marriage is an official process whereby a man and a woman agree to spend the rest of their lives together.)

105)    Precipitate(v):to cause to happen/to bring about/to change from one state to another(

106)    Abolitionist(n):one who wants to end something

107)    Cease(v):to stop

108)    Anathema(n): idea or object of great loathing

109)    Proposition(n):idea to be debated/proposed plan/focus on an argument

110)    Enflame(v):to make angry

111)    Antipathy(n): dislike for

112)    Secession(n):the process of leaving

113)    Indigenous(adj) :native

114)    Heretofore(adv):previously

115)    Monumental(adj):astounding/large and impressive/extremely significant

116)    Devastating(adj):to destroy/to shock and stun/to ruin completely

117)    Era(n) :famous time period

118)    Catch-22(id,n) trapped by opposing conditions/situation preventing a solution to a problem/ a no-win situation

119)    it goes without saying(phr):it is obvious/the facts are clear/as you can see

120)    persist with(v):to continue

121)    counter(v): to argue the opposite

122)    pull the plug(id,v):to end something/to cut off/to empty a sink or bath by pulling the drain plug

123)    Quandary(n):unable to decide

124)    Kill 2 birds with one stone(id,v): to do 2 things at the same time

125)    the icing on the cake(id,n):the best part,the amazing part,the good part

126)    pull through with flying colors(id,v):to succeed beyond expectations

127)    significant other(id): lover

128)    walk on air (id,v): to be extremely happy

129)    blow away(id,v): to be amazed/to be astounded/to feel shocked

130)    gratis(adj):free

131)    Painstaking(adj) :difficult process

132)    overwhelemed(adj):feeling buried/feeling too much pressure/feeling out of control

133)    feel like a fish out of water(id,v):to be in the wrong place/to feel out of context/to know you don’t fit in

134)    overcome(v):to defeat

135)    take the bull by the horns(id,v):to take control/to take responsibility/to face a challenge directly

136)    misgivings(n):feelings of doubt

137)    pack it in(id):to surrender/to quit/to pack one’s bag and leave

138)    truly(adv):really/indeed/yes

139)    cherish(v):to value always (I cherish our friendship very much)

140)    there and then (adv): at the moment

141)    esteemed(adj):respected

142)    regard(n): consideration for/attention to/respect for

143)    Disintegration(n):to disintegrate/to fall apart/to dissolve completely

144)    the 64,000$ question(id,n):the big question/the only question/the obvious question

145)    recincarnation(n):rebirth after death

146)    figment(n): something imagined

147)    expiration(n):end/death/termination

148)    contemplation(n):act of thinking

149)    transfiguration(n): change in shape or figure/change in appearance or look/process of transfiguring

150)    manifestation(n):act of revealing

151)    address(v):to deal with/to answer an issue/to speak directly to

152)    breach(v) :break

153)    remedy(n0: solution

154)    apoplectic(adj):very angry

155)    get wind of the fact that (id,v):to receive information

156)    jurisdiction(n):territory where a law applies( NYPD has no jurisdiction over New Jersey)

157)    Negligent(adj):careless/failing to perfom/lacking attention to duty

158)    Recourse(n):choice/plan of action/direction to follow

159)    Sue(v): to see money for damages

160)    Stipulated(adj):item required by a contract/object in question/the agreed to point

161)    Seminal(adj) :the very first

162)    Assembly line(phr):moving or conveyor belt in a factory/chain moving in a circle

163)    essentially(adv):basically

164)    substantially(adv):greatly

165)    behemoth(n/adj) :huge/massive/mosntrous

166)    symbol(n);sign with meaning

167)    indomitable(adj): cannot be conquered

168)    doomed(adj):destined to disappear

169)    susceptible(adj) :open to/vulnerable to/defenseless

170)    coalesce(v): to come together as one

171)    firgid(adj) :very cold

172)    perish(v): to die/vanish/disappear

173)    owing to the fact that(phr) rbecause/since/inasmuch as

174)    tragic(adj): great misfortune/disaster/cataclysmic

175)    iconic(adj): symbol of /representation of/sign of

176)    genesis(n);the beginning

177)    arguably(adv) :that which can be argued

178)    incorporate(v) :to become a public company

179)    take root(v):to begin to grow

180)    crucible(n):place where forces meet/place of great heat/bowl used for melting objects

181)    inventiveness(n):good at creating/ability to invent/talent for making new things

182)    frontier(n): where civilization ends/border/point of transition

183)    savage(adj)destructive

184)    jack-of-all-trades(id,adj):can do many things well

185)    quintessential(adj):the best or perfect example/the most illustrative example

186)    herd(v):to group together

187)    none more so than(phr):there is no better example

188)    self-reliant(adj): independant

189)    archetype(n):original model or type

190)    sublime(adj):God-Like Beauty

191)    pod(n);small group of whales/dolphins/seals

192)    matrilineal(adj): following the mother

193)    transient(adj):temporary/one who always moves about

194)    Contrary to the Popular Belief(phr):against what is true/what most think/agree with what is true

195)    appellation(n):name

196)    stocky(adj): short and heavy

197)    life span(phr):the length of a life

198)    ratify(v):to approve/to confirm/to put your stamp on

199)    absolute(adj):pure/not limited/total control of

200)    apace(advO:rapidly with no purpose

201)    confound(v): to frustrate

202)    venerate(v):to worship

203)    Bum the candle at both ends(id,v):to work late and long

204)    Come with the territory(id,v):to be part of the job

205)    Put one’s nose to the grindstone(id,v):to focus on what is important

206)    Ace(v):to do extremely well

207)    Keep one’s eye on the prize(id,v):to focus always on what you are working for

208)    Push the envelope(id,v):to go to the extreme

209)    Give it one’s best shot(id,v):to try one’s best

210)    Conviction(n): strong belief

211)    Kick back(id,v) :to take it easy

212)    R and R(id,n) :rest and relaxation

213)    Pragmantic(adj) :prefers logic to emotions/practical/black and white

214)    Engmatic(adj):mysterious

215)    Have both feet on the grounded,v):to be pragmatic

216)    Cynic(adj):one who does not trust selfless acts

217)    have one’s head in the clouds(id,v):to feel romantic

218)    very much the(adv):definitely/really/totally

219)    what one would call(phr):an example or illustration or definition of

220)    diehard(adj): resolute/determined

221)    advent of(phr): introduction of /development of/invention of

222)    concurrent with(phr):conditionally

223)    wayward(adj):difficult/unpredicatble /capricious

224)    specious(adj): sounds convincing but lacks logic/misleading

225)    emblematic(adj):symbolic of/sign of/indication of

226)    malefaction(n):crime/violation/lawlessness

227)    brazen(adj):shameless

228)    boom(n):explosion/rapid expansion/fast growth

229)    wholesale(adj):complete/total/utter

230)    parasitic(adj):benefiting from another’s hard work

231)    double-edged sword(id,n/adj):when the outcome can be both positive and negative

232)    cost and arm and a leg(id,v):to be very expensive/extremely costly/unaffordable

233)    take one’s place in the spotlighted,v):to stand at the center of attention

234)    purport(v):to claim

235)    unadulterated(adj):untouched

236)    produce(n): fresh fruits and vegetables

237)    nevertheless(adv) :yet/nontheless/still

238)    bite the bullet(id,v): to do something unwillingly

239)    rampant(adj):out of control

240)    persnickety(adj):fussy/strict/fastidious

241)    bent out of shape(adj) :really angry

242)    cross the rubicon(id,v):crossing the point of no retum/to go too far/to cross a very big line

243)    Neanderthal(n/adj):early cave man/lacking culture/brain-dead guy

244)    ascertain(v):to discover with certainty

245)    transgression(n): violation

246)    multitude(n):many

247)    accumulate(v):to collect

248)    infringement(n): too close without permission

249)    sort(n): label

250)    feral(adj):wild

251)    prodigious(adj):extraordinary

252)    deem(v):judge

253)    cross(v): to pass/to breed-interbreed/cross feritlization

254)    harbor(v):have/possess/hold

255)    litter(n):group of new born animals/ trash/ pile of objects

256)    propensity(n):tendancy/need/ability

257)    sustenance(n):food/nourishment/comestibles

258)    Bioshpcrc(n) :area of world where life exists Pedospherefnf :area of world with soil/dirt/earth Geosphere(n):solid/rock based part of the earth studied by geologists Hvdrospherefn) :all water found on earth

259)    gourmand(n):food lover

260)    ground breaking (adj): seminal/original/revolutionary

261)    case in point(phr): for example/namely/specifically

262)    obtuse(adj): stupid

263)    conundrum(n):challenging problem/problem with no answer/puzzlement

264)    diffidence(n):no confidence

265)    albeit(adv) :but/although/though

266)    inscrutable(adj): impenetrable

267)    insurmountable(adj):impossible/cannot be conquered/unresolvable

268)    countencance(n) expression on one’s face

269)    ebullient(adj):always enthusiastic

270)    disconcerted(adj) :preplexed/embarrassed/ discombobulated

271)    nail(id,v): to answer correctly/to attain a goal/to target and hit

272)    take no prisoners(id,v): show no pitty or compassion or weakness

273)    all manner of (adj):all kinds of/myriad of/great variety of

274)    widget(n):name of a non specific product or contravince

275)    peddle(v):to sell

276)    budding(adj):young and learning

277)    expand one’s horizons(id,v):to explore new territory

278)    rake in (id,v): to make a lot of money

279)    resurrect(v): to bring back from the dead/ to give new life/ to make new again

280)    stigmata(n) marks

281)    peruse(v): examine carefully

282)    salient(adj):one that rises above the rest

283)    mince words(v):to be uncertain/to render incomplete/to soften one’s words

284)    epiphany(n):innate moment of realization/sudden revelaton/personal discovery

285)    boon(n):benefit

286)    disingenious(adj):insincere

287)    expediency(n): convenience

288)    bevy of (phr):a myriad of/many/a lot of

289)    expunge(v): to delete totally

290)    ersatz(adj):fake(german)/knock of/forgery

291)    vemacular(n):mainstream/native/indigenous language

292)    jargon(n):code for special applications

293)    aficionado(n):fan

294)    voracious(adj):always hungry

295)    murky(adj):not clear

296)    territorial(adj):protective of one’s land

297)    attribute to(v):to give credit to/to acknowledge/to give benefit to

298)    zenith(n):highest point/opposite of nadir/the absolute top

299)    laissez-faire(phr):free market buisness model

300)    impugn(v):to attack

301)    epitome(n):quintessence

302)    equanimity(n) realm

303)    placate(v):to assuage/mollify/pacify

304)    resplendent(adj):brilliant and amazing

305)    impervious(adj):invulnerable to attack

306)    harangue(n/v):long,angry lecture

307)    rancor(n):anger

308)    Persevere(v):to keep going despite obstacles or discouragement/to maintain a purpose ( Perseverance is noun/Persistent is adj.) (e.g:Researchers in meteorology persevere in studying and predicting tsunami behavior.)

309)    Plunge(v):to go down suddenly/to decrease by great amount in short time.(e.g:He jumped of the diving board and plunged into the pool./The value of the company’s stocks plunged after its CEO’s resignation./He plunged the box of candy during his visit to his aun’t house./Many believe that it’s cruel to plunge live lobsters into boiling water.)

310)    Cultivation(n):preparing the land to grow crops/improvement for agricultural purposes.(e.g: With the development of land cultivation,hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place. Cultivate(v) – e.g: The farmers use various methods to cultivate the crops.)

311)    Intensify(v):to increase in power/to act with increased strength.(e.g: Several human rights agencies has intensified their efforts to fight child abuse worldwide.)

312)    Irrigation(n):to supply water to dry land.(e.g:In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland for irrigation.)

313)    Adversely(adv):in a harmful way/negatively (e.g:Excessive rainfall can adversely affect the planting of crops.) ( adverse adj ./adversity n.)

314)    Feature(n):part/characteristic. ( e.g: The best feature of this computer is its processor’s speed.)

315)    Inherent(adj):naturally characterisitc/always found within something/basic part of something.(e.g: No job can be interesting all the time.Boredom is inherent in any kind of work.)

316)    Constraint(n):something that restricts thought or action.(e.g: The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morrison more than once a month.)

317)    Deplete(v):to greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material.(e.g: Stemous excercise depletes the muscle from its glycogen stores.)

318)    Dispose of(v):to throw away/to get rid of/to kill.(e.g:The mobster cruelly disposed of all his enemies./I’m going to dispose of my unwanted posessions before moving to my new apartment.)

319)    Emission(n): sending out a small space into the general environment/a substance discharged into the air. (The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of pollutants into the air.)

320)    Reservoir(n):A place where a liquid is collected and stored.(e.g: The town’s water

reservoir was built 2 years ago.)

321)    Shrink(v):to become reduced in size,amount,or value.(e.g:If you dry your clothing on the “high heat” setting,they may shrink.)

322)    Stable(adj.): firm and dependable/showing little change, (e.g: He fell because the ladder wasn’t stable./He is in a stable condition.)

323)    Adjust(v):to change/get accustomed to something.(e.g:It took him time to adjust to his new house./ Travelers are advised to adjust their watches before arriving in the new time zone.)

324)    Arbitrary(adj):chosen simply by whim or chance/not for any specific reason.(e.g:The decision to build a school in Blackberry Township was arbitrary,without any thought to future housing patterns. Arbitrate v./arbitrator n./arbitrarily adv.)

325)    Denominator(n):the number written below the line in a fraction/ the most basic and unsophisticated things that most people share.

326)    Exponentially(adv): at very fast rate.(e.g:The value of the Egyptian Pound has decreased exponentially in the last five years.)

327)    Infinitesimal(adj):Immeasurably small.(e.g:The number of contaminants in the water infinitesimal,so the water was safe to drink.)

328)    Parallel(adj):being an equal distance apart everywhere.(e.g:The street where i live runs parallel to the main road though town.)

329)    Proportion(n): a part in relation to the whole.(e.g:The average employee spends a large proportion of each workday answering e-mails.)

330)    Rate(n):the cost per unit of a good or service/the motion or change that happens in a certain time.( Telecommunication rates in Lebanon are among the highest in the world./Some grasses grow at the rate of one inch per day.)

331)    Sequence(v):to organize or arrange in succession.(e.g; Volunteers has been asked to sequence the files and organize the boxes.) ( sequence n. : the order of something/sequentially adv.)

332)    Adjacent(adj):next to. (e.g:Even though the villages are adjacent to each other, their residents speak different languages.)

333)    Compress(v): to press together.(e.g: Winrar is a computer software used to compress files.)

334)    Feasibly(adv)practically/in a way that can work.(e.g: Scientists can’t feasibly bring energy from deep ocean currents to where it is needed-on land)

335)    Gut(v):to empty or hollow out.(e.g:In order to remodel the house,we must first gut it and throw away all the old fixtures.)

336)    Integrally(adv):In a whole or complete manner(e.g: Writing and spelling are taught intergrally as a part of the reading program.)

337)    Overlap(v): to lie over part of something/to have elements in common.(e.g: One of the 2 assistants will likely get fired, since most of their duties in the office overlap.)

338)    Retain(v): to keep or hold (e.g: The rain fell so heavily that the banks of the river could not retain all the water.)

339)    seep(v):to pass slowly for a long time,as a liquid or gas.(e.g: As th containers rusted, the toxic waste seeped into the ground.)

340)    Structure(n): Something constructed, such as a building.(e.g:Most companies have a social structure that can’t be understood by outsiders.)

341)    Corrode(v):to be slowly weakened by chemical reactions.(e.g: Sitting in salt water,the old coins corroded and became very easy to break.)

342)    Derive(v): to come from,usually through a long,slow process.(e.g: The Cyrillic alphapet was dervied from the Greek alphabet.)

343)    Detection(n):Discovering something that cannot easily be found.(e.g: With new medical technology, the detection of cancer is much easier nowadays.)

344)    Expeditiously(adv):Quickly ad efficiently(e.g: Using carrier pigeons, the militay

commaders exchanged messages expeditiously.)

345)    Implementv):to make use of/to carry out.(e.g: Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system.)

346)    Installation(n): Setting something into position for use.(e.g:Installation of the ew software takes only four minutes.)

347)    Simulation(n):An imitation or representation.(e.g: To test car safety,automobile makers study crash simulations.)

348)    Convey(v):to transport from one place to another/to transmit or make known(e.g: A messenger conveyed the prince’s letter to the commander of the army.)

349)    Discretely(adv):separately/distinctly(e.g:in order to understand how the engine worked, each component needed to be studied discretely.)

350)    Permeate(v):to spread or flow throughout/to pass through or penetrate(e.g:The smell of cooking permeated the entire apartment building.)

351)    Rotate(v):to turn around/to take turns in sequence.(e.g:The planet rotates on its acis once every 14 earth days.The children rotate classroom responsibilites on a weekly basis.)

352)    Trigger(v):to set off or initiate.(e.g:I was certain any mention of politics would trigger a big argument.)

353)    Acquisition(n):the act of taking possession of something.(e.g: Our recent acquisition of over 2000 books makes our biggest library in the region.)

354)    Consciously(adv):with awareness of one’s actions.(e.g: He may have hurt her feelings,but henver would have done so consciously.)

355)    Degrade(v):to reduce in value or strength.(e.g:The roads in cold or wet areas of the united states degrade faster than those in warm,sunny regions.)

356)    Indisputable(adj):beyond doubt/unquestionable(e.g: The members of the jury found her guilty because they found the facts of the case indisputable.)

357)    Intervene(v);to come between.(e.g:A good mediator intervenes only as much as necessary to settle a dispute between other parties.)

358)    Intuitively(adv):By means of a natural sense about things that are hard to observe(e.g:Many mothers know intuitively when something is wrong with their children.)

359)    Recede(v):to move back or away from.(e.g:After the age of 30,his hairline began to recede further back from his forehead.)

360)    Retrieve(v);to bring or get back(e.g:Most dogs can be trained to retrieve objects that their owners have thrown.)

361)    Agnostic(adj):Believeing that humans cannot know whether there is a God.(e.g:His devoutly Christian parents had problems with his agnostic beliefs.)

362)    Animism(n):the belief that natural objects,such as trees,have souls.(e.g:Desert cultures that practice animism often believe that winds contain spirits.)

363)    Athiest(n):one who does not believe int he existence of a supreme being.(e.g: he argued that his scientific training made it impossibe for him to be anything but an athiest.O

364)    Be inclined to (v):to favor an opinion or a course of action.(e.g: He couldn’t say which candidate he favored,but he had always been inclined to vote Republican.)

365)    Deify(v0:to worship as a God.(e.g: When peiple deify the leader of their country,the leader is able to abuse power more easily.)

366)    Ecclesiastical(adj)relating to a church(e.g:He was looking specifically for a university where he could study ecclesiastical history.)

367)    Exalt(v):to praise or honor(e.g:He would often exalt the virtues of his new wife.)

368)    Pious(adj):having or exhibiting religious reverence.(e.g:Sometimes she was so pious that the rest of us felt like heathens)

369)    Heathen(n): A follower of a polytheistic religion; a pagan .derogatory. A person who does not belong to a widely held religion (esp. one who is not a Christian, Jew, or Muslim) as regarded…: “bringing Christianity to the heathens”

370)    Decrepit(adj):weakened or worn out because of age,illness,or excessive use.(e.g:The

once-beautiul building was now dirty,decrepit,and roofless.)

371)    Aggravate^):to make worse/to angeror intensify.(e.g:Running will aggravate your sore knees.)

372)    Augment(v):to make bigger or better by adding to.(e.g: In some types of popular cosmetic surgery people augment parts of their bodies/The college augmented its course offerinsgs because students complained tht there were too few choices.)

373)    Certifiably(adv):In a manner that is officially recognized.(e.g:He couldn’t be institutionalizeduntil was declared certifiably insane.)

374)    Divination(n):Fortelling the future by finding the patterns in physical objects.(e.g: In Turkey, women offer divinations by reading the dregs from a coffee cup.)

375)    Haunt(v):To continually appear( in the form of a ghost)in the same place or to the same person.(e.g: Some say that ghost of Princess Hilda haunts this castle,appearing as a headless form while she plays the piano.)

376)    Intemmediary(n):Acting as an agent between people or things.(e.g: The plantiffs lawyer suggested that they hire an intermediary to help them discuss their case.)

377)    Invoke(v):to call for support.(e.g: In many religions,believers invoke their God by holding out their hands.)

378)    Self-perpertuating(adj):Having the power to renew oneself for indefinite period of time.

379)    Assimilate(v):to consume and incorporate/to become similar.(e.g:Not all of the overseas students could assimilate into the rigidly controlled school.)

380)    Cremation(n):The act of burning the dead.(e.g: Cremation is particularly common in Japan,where land for burial is very limited.)

381)    Domesticate(v):to make something suitable for being in a home.(e.g:The Barnes family hoped to domesticate the tiger,but their neighbors were skeptical.)

382)    Folklore(n):traditional myths of a people transmitted orally.(e.g:Through folklore,archaeologists have learned about the migration of Native Americans in Noth America.)

383)    Fossilize(v):to become preserved in clay or stone or ash after death,sp that a natural record is left of the original organism/to become rigid and stuck in old ways.(e.g: The dinosaur eggs had fossilized over thousands of years.)

384)    Relic(n):something left from a long ago culture,time period or person.(e.g:Relics of the war can still be found in the sand dunes along this shore.)

385)    Rite(n):a ceremony meant to achieve a certain purpose.(e.g:Many cultures have fertility rites that supposedly makes it more likely for women to bear children.)

386)    Saga(n):a long story about important events long ago.(e.g:Many American families tell sagas about their ancestors’ arrival in the United States.)

387)    Vestige(n):A visible trace that something once existed.(e.g: The wilted flowers were the only vestige of their romantic weekend.)

388)    Amend(v):to change for the better.(e.g: The residents voted to amend their neighborhood policy on fences.)

389)    de facto(adj):truly doing a job,even if not officially.(e.g:Popular support established the Citizens Party as the de facto government.)

390)    Notion(n):a belief.a fanciful impulse.(e.g:The notion that older office equipment is unreliable is the inaccurate./One morning,she suddenly took the notion to paint her kitchen red.)

391)    Prej udiced(adj): causing to j udge prematurely and unfairly, (e. g: Manu consumers are prejudiced against commercial goods made in third-world countries.)

392)    Distinctly(adv):clearly(e.g: I distinctly remeber saying that we would meet at noon.)

393)    Erudite(adj):highly educated.(e.g: Even though Stella was only a freshman,she was considered erudite by both her classmates and her professors.)

394)    Fortify(v):to strengthen.(e.g: The high priced drink had extra vitamins and minerals

to fortify the body.)

395)    Implicity(adv): without being tated/unquestioningly(e.g:By joining the competition,she agreed implicity to the rules.)

396)    Parochial(adj): restricted in outlook/relating to the local parish.(e.g:Marla moved from her rual community to get away from its parochial thinking. Sending your children to a parochial school can cost as much as sending them to college.)

397)    Rigor(n):Strictness/difficult situations that come from following rules strictly.(e.g:The wrestler followed his diet with rigor./The rigors of military life toughned the young men quickly.)

398)    Roster(n):a list especially of names(e.g:2 names on the roster were misspelled.)

399)    Eloquently(adv):Characterized by persuasive, powerful discourse: an eloquent speaker; an eloquent sermon./ Vividly or movingly expressive: a look eloquent with compassion.

400)    Allegiance(n):loyalty.(e.g: My allegiance to my country is based on respect for its principles.)

401)    Hierarchy(n):a system of levels that places people high or low according to their importance.(e.g: Starting as a lowly private,Burt Jones gradually rose through the hierarchy of the army.)

402)    Annex(v):to make something(usually land) part of another unit.(e.g:Bardstown grew by annexing several farms at the north edge of town.)

403)    Conquest(n):a takeover by force or continued effort.(e.g:The first recorded conquest of Mt.Everest was by Tensing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hilary.) (conquer v.)

404)    Devise(v):to find an original way to make an object or a plan.(e.g: The soldiers devised a way ti cross the river into enemy territory.) (device n.)

405)    Prevailing(adj.) Strongest or most common (Prevail v./prevalence n.) (e.g:The prevailing attitude among our neighbors is to be friendly but not too friendly.)

406)    Milieu(n): General Environment or surroundings.(e.g: Many Vietnam veterans did not feel comfortable in the antiwar social milieu of the 1970s)

407)    Orwellian(adj):frightening and overcontrolled by a government that interfers in nearly every aspect of personal life.(e.g: Biometric devices like eye-scanners allow an Orwellian level of government knowledge about everyone’s location.)

408)    Reconciliation(n):coming back together peacefully after having been enemies.(e.g:South Africs avoided a bloodbath after apartheid by setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission.)

409)    Apartheid(n): A policy or practice of separating or segregating groups.

410)    Allocate(v):to give out different amounts for different purposes(e.g:The budget allocates $58billion to the military and only about $2billion to education.)

411)    Commodity(n): A thing that can be bought and sold,such as grain,oil,or wood.(e.g:Tulip Bulbs were one of the most Valuable commoditis in seventeenth-century Holland)

412)    Subsidy(n):Money Given by a government or other organization to support an activity.(e.g: Federal subsidies to grain farmers have helped them stay in buisness despite three years of bad weather.)

413)    Tangible(adj): obviously real because it can be seen,touched,or otherwise observed.(e.g: One tangible benefit of putting electrical cables underground is a clearer view of the sky.)

414)    Impoverish(v); to make a person or group poor.(e.g: The collapse of the steel industry impoverished several countries in eastern Ohio.)

415)    Proprietor(n):Owner, usually of a buisness or a building, (e.g; The proprietor of Hekman’s Windows is Nels Hekman,grandson of the people who established the factory.)

416)    Exploit(v):to take advantage of/to treat inconsiderately in order to profit(e.g:The company tried to exploit the low interest rates to expand operations.)

417)    Incentive(n): A possible benefit that motivates a person to do a certain thing.(e.g:

This city’s willingness to support its public schools gave us an incentive to move here with out two young children.)

418)    Marginal(adj):Not very significant or effective.(e.g:Our new advertising campaign had only marginal success,raising sales by a mere 3 percent.)

419)    Merit(n):value/success based on one’s work,not on luck.(e.g: Pay raises at our company are based on merit,as determined by a committee of managers.)

420)    Distill(v): to remove one liquid froma mixture of liquids by boiling;to get something valuable from a confusing mix of ideas.(e.g: The forest people of Southeast Asia distill an alcoholic drink called arak from a paste of palm berries./Most studetns are confused by her lectures,but Joe can always distill ger main idea.)

421)    Intrepid(adj):fearless(e.g: for nearly 200 years,only the most intrepid colonists would cross the Appalachian Mountains.)

422)    Haggle(v):to argue back and forth about a price.(e.g:The customer and the shopkeeper haggled over the silver plate for more than an hour.)

423)    Shuttle(v):to move back and forth between 2 places.(e.g:The small jet shuttles between Kuala Lampur and Singapore nearly every 2 hours.)

424)    Bitterly(adv): Strongly and wih a lot of bad feelings.(e.g: Senator Thomas bitterly opposed the movement to design a new state flag.)

425)    Inaugurate(v):to bring into public office/to start formally.(e.g: The US president is elected in November,but is not inaugurated until the following January.)

426)    Allegedly(adv):according to what people say.(e.g: The chief financial officer of the company allegedly took company’s money for his personal use.)

427)    Verdict(n): A judgement in a court case.(e.g: It took the jury only 30 minutes to reach a verdict of “guilty”.)

428)    Condemn(v):to speak out against something in very strong terms.(e.g: Religious radicals condemned the government for allowing alcohol to be sold in restaurants.)

429)    Bureaucratic(adj): related to a large organisation with a lot of complicated procedures.( implies that something is inefficient and unnecessarily complicated.)(e.g:Before I could speak with the chief, I had to go through a bureaucratic runaround of identity checks and written requests.)

430)    Assail(v):to criticize or attack forcefully.(e.g:With DNA evidence from the crime scene, the defense lawyer assailed the police for falsely arresting his client.)(assailant n./assault n.)

431)    Implicate(v):to suggest that someone was involved in a crime or other wrong behavior.(e.g:No group claimed responsibility for the bombing,but the type of explosive used implicates the Heartland Freedom Militia.)

432)    Inquiry(n):investigation.(e.g: The FBI launched an inquiry into the relationship between organised crime and the trucking company.)

433)    Intrusively(adv):In a way that brings unwanted person or thing into someone else’s affairs.(e.g: The new consultant from company headquarters appeared intrusively at meetings,staff parties,and other functions where he was not wanted.) (intrude v./intruder or intrusion n./intrusive adj.)

434)    Evade(v): to get away from something that tries to catch you.(e.g: The robbery suspects tried to evade the police by fleeing to Canada.)

435)    Grotesque(adj):extremely unattractive,in a way that catches a lot of attention.(e.g: Spending $3.5million to redecorate the governor’s house is a grotesque misuse of public money.)

436)    Coerce(v):to force/to put pressure on someone to do something.( e.g: A criminal’s confession is not usable in court if the police coerce him or her into giving it.)(coercion n./coercive adj.)

437)    Predicament(n): a difficult situation,one that is hard to get out of. (e.g: College

basketball player of wanting to graduate but being tempted by high professional salaries.)

438)    Distort(v): to twist or misinterpret/to make something seem different from what it really is.(e.g: If you hold a pencil in a glass of water, the water distorts the appearance of the pencil.)

439)    interdict(v);to keep something from reaching a certain place.(e.g: With faster patrol boats,the Coast Guard can more easily interdict drugs being smuggled by sea.)

440)    Juxtapose(v):Place next to one another.(e.g: If you juxtapose these two similar flowers,you can see clear differences between them.)

441)    Subtly(adv):in a quiet,hard to notice way(e.g:By subtly changing the soft drink’s formula,we improved its taste and made production cheaper.)

442)    Sentiment(n):feelings/opinion based on feelings.(e.g:I share your sentiments about air travefbut i disagree that cars are safer.)

443)    Clique(n):A small group of friends who are unfriendly to people outside the group.(e.g:High-schoolers form cliques to security and acceptance.)

444)    Confide(v): to tell personal things.(e.g:Teenagers are more willing to confide in a friend than in a parent.)(confidant n./confiedence n./ confidential adj.)

445)    Despondent(adj):Extremely sad and without hope for the future.(e.g: After his girlfriend left him,Johnson was despondent and wouldn’t talk to anyone.)

446)    Devotion(n):willingness to keep supporting someone you admire.(e.g: Grant showed great devotion to his wife,supporting her long illness.)

447)    Engender(v):to bring into being/to cause to exist.(e.g:The government’s warnings about terrorism engendered fear throughout the nation.)

448)    Berate(v): to say insulting and disrespectful things.(e.g:The teacher lost his job because he cruelly berated students who made mistakes.)

449)    Contemptuous(n):having no respect(e.g:most scientists are contemptuous of reports that aliens from outer space have landed on the Earth.)

450)    Vitriolic(adj):showing and extreme,hateful anger.(e.g: The mayor’s vitriolic attacks against the city council only made him sound unreasonable.)

451)    Deliquency(n);serious misbehavior/not ding what one should do(e.g: because of his laziness and deliquency,Lefty was unreliable friend.)

452)    Fringe(n):edge/in social contexts,parts of society that look or act very different from most people.(e.g:Punk music fot its start at the fringe of London’s rock music culture.)

453)    Hedonistic(adj)excessively seeking pleasure.(e.g:Suddenly wealthy,Allen fell into a hedonistic life of parties,expensive dinners,and heavy drinking.)

454)    Abstract(adj):not concrete and realistic/not obviously related to everyday experience.(e.g:Abstract painting became popular partly because early photography was very realistic.)

455)    Depict(v):to show in pictures.(e.g: Micheal Angelo’s painting on the eiling of the Sistine Chapel depicts nine scenes from the Bible.)

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455 Important Vocabulary for TOEFL IBT
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