Reading Practice Test 60 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 60 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension

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Reading Directions: This section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English.

The Reading section is divided into separately timed parts.

Most questions are worth 1 point, but the last question for each passage is worth more than 1 point. The directions for the last question indicate how many points you may receive. You will now begin the Reading section. There are three passages in the section. You should allow 20 minutes to read each passage and answer the questions about it. You should allow 60 minutes to complete the entire section.

Passage 1: 

P1: What we today call America folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday “folks” who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits. Citizens of prosperous, essentially middle-class republics-whether ancient Romans, seventeenth-century Dutch burghers, or nineteenth-century Americans-have always shown a marked taste for portraiture. Starting in the late eighteenth century, the United States contained increasing numbers of such people, and of the artists how could meet their demands. The earliest American folk art portraits come, not surprisingly, form New England-especially Connecticut and Massachusetts-for this was a wealthy and populous region and the center of a strong craft tradition. Within a few decades after the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the population was pushing westward, and portrait painters could be found at work in western New York, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. Midway through its first century as a nation, the
United States’ population had increased roughly five time, and eleven new states had been added to the original thirteen. During these years the demand for portraits grew and grew, eventually to be satisfied by the camera. In 1839 the daguerreotype was introduced to America, ushering in the age of photography, and within a generation the new invention put an end to the popularity of painted portraits. One again an original portrait became a luxury, commissioned by the wealthy and executed by the professional.

P2: But in the heyday of portrait painting-from the late eighteenth century until the 1850’s-anyone with a modicum of artistic ability could become a limner, as such a portraitist was called. Local craftspeople-sign, coach, and house painters-began to paint portraits as a profitable sideline; sometimes a talented man or woman who began by sketching family members gained a local reputation and was besieged with requests for portraits; artists found it worth their while to pack their paints, canvases, and brushes and to travel the countryside, often combining house decorating with portrait painting.

1. The author mentions seventeenth-century Dutch burghers as an example of a group that

(A) consisted mainly of self taught artists              (B) appreciated portraits

(C) influenced American folk art                             (D) had little time for the arts

2. The word “market” in line 5 is closest in meaning to

(A) pronounced               (B) fortunate                   (C) understandable          (D) mysterious

3. According to the passage, where were many of the first American folk art portraits painted?

(A) In western New York                                        (B) In Illinois and Missouri

(C) In Connecticut and Massachusetts                    (D) In Ohio

4. The word “this” in paragraph 1 refers to

(A) a strong craft tradition                                   (B) American folk art

(C) New England                                                   (D) western New York

5. How much did the population of United States increase in the first fifty years following independence?

(A) It became three times larger.                            (B) It became five times larger.

(C) It became eleven times larger.                          (D) It became thirteen times larger.

6. The phrase “ushering in” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

(A) beginning                  (B) demanding                (C) publishing                 (D) increasing

7. The relationship between the daguerreotype and the painted portrait is similar to the relationship between the automobile and the

(A) highway                                                          (B) driver

(C) horse-drawn carriage                                        (D) engine

8. According to the passage, which of the following contributed to a decline in the demand for painted portraits?

(A) The lack of a strong craft tradition

(B) The westward migration of many painters

(C) The growing preference for landscape paintings

(D) The invention of the camera

9. The word “executed” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

(A) sold                          (B) requested                  (C) admired                     (D) created

10. The author implies that most limners

(A) received instruction from traveling teachers

(B) were women

(C) were from wealthy families

(D) had no formal art training

11. The word “sketching” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to

(A) drawing                     (B) hiring                         (C) helping                      (D) discussing

12. Where in the passage does the author provide definition?

(A) […] of all kinds, and especially for portraits. Citizens of prosperous, essentially middle-class republics-whether ancient Romans, seventeenth-century Dutch burghers, or nineteenth-century Americans-have always shown a marked taste for portraiture. Starting in the late eighteenth century, the United States contained […]

(B) […] The earliest American folk art portraits come, not surprisingly, form New England-especially Connecticut and Massachusetts-for this was a wealthy and populous region and the center of a strong craft tradition. Within a few decades after […]

(C) […] Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. Midway through its first century as a nation, the United States’ population had increased roughly five time, and eleven new states had been added to the original thirteen. During these years the demand for portraits grew […]

(D) […] But in the heyday of portrait painting-from the late eighteenth century until the 1850’s-anyone with a modicum of artistic ability could become a limner, as such a portraitist was called. Local craftspeople-sign, coach, and house painters-began to […]

Reading Practice Test 60 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension
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