Reading Practice Test 68 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 68 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension

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Reading Directions: This section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English.

The Reading section is divided into separately timed parts.

Most questions are worth 1 point, but the last question for each passage is worth more than 1 point. The directions for the last question indicate how many points you may receive. You will now begin the Reading section. There are three passages in the section. You should allow 20 minutes to read each passage and answer the questions about it. You should allow 60 minutes to complete the entire section.

Reading Practice Test 68 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension

Reading Practice Test 68 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension

Passage 1: 

Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem, to the health of the Earth and human well-being.
Line Much has been written about the diversity of terrestrial organisms, particularly the (5) exceptionally rich life associated with tropical rain-forest habitats. Relatively little has been said, however, about diversity of life in the sea even though coral reef systems are comparable to rain forests in terms of richness of life.

An alien exploring Earth would probably give priority to the planet’s dominants, most-distinctive feature-the ocean. Humans have a bias toward land that sometimes (10) gets in the way of truly examining global issues. Seen from far away, it is easy to
realize that landmasses occupy only one-third of the Earth’s surface. Given that two thirds of the Earth’s surface is water and that marine life lives at all levels of the ocean, the total three-dimensional living space of the ocean is perhaps 100 times greater than
that of land and contains more than 90 percent of all life on Earth even though the (15) ocean has fewer distinct species.

The fact that half of the known species are thought to inhabit the world’s rain forests does not seem surprising, considering the huge numbers of insects that comprise the bulk of the species. One scientist found many different species of ants in just one tree
from a rain forest. While every species is different from every other species, their (20) genetic makeup constrains them to be insects and to share similar characteristics with 750,000 species of insects. If basic, broad categories such as phyla and classes are
given more emphasis than differentiating between species, then the greatest diversity of life is unquestionably the sea. Nearly every major type of plant and animal has some representation there.

(25) To appreciated fully the diversity and abundance of life in the sea, it helps to think small. Every spoonful of ocean water contains life, on the order of 100 to 100,000 bacterial cells plus assorted microscopic plants and animals, including larvae of
organisms ranging from sponges and corals to starfish and clams and much more.

32. What is the main point of the passage?

(A) Humans are destroying thousands of species.
(B) There are thousands of insect species.
(C) The sea is even richer in life than the rain forests.
(D) Coral reefs are similar to rain forests.

33. The word “appreciation” in line 2 is closest in meaning to

(A) ignorance

(B) recognition

(C) tolerance

(D) forgiveness

34. Why does the author compare rain forests and coral reefs (lines 4-7)?

(A) They are approximately the same size.
(B) They share many similar species.
(C) Most of the their inhabitants require water.
(D) Both have many different forms of life.

35. The word “bias” in line 9 is closest in meaning to

(A) concern

(B) disadvantage

(C) attitude

(D) prejudice

36. The passage suggests that most rain forest species are

(A) insects

(B) bacteria

(C) mammals

(D) birds

37. The word “there” in line 24 refers to

(A) the sea

(B) the rain forests

(C) a tree

(D) the Earth’s surface

38. The author argues that there is more diversity of life in the sea than in the rain forests because

(A) more phyla and classes of life are represented in the sea
(B) there are too many insects to make meaningful distinctions
(C) many insect species are too small to divide into categories
(D) marine life-forms reproduce at a faster rate

39. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of microscopic sea life?

(A) Sponges

(B) Coral

(C) Starfish

(D) Shrimp

40. Which of the following conclusions is supported by the passage?

(A) Ocean life is highly adaptive.
(B) More attentions needs to be paid to preserving ocean species and habitats.
(C) Ocean life is primarily composed of plants.
(D) The sea is highly resistant to the damage done by pollutants.

Reading Practice Test 68 from The Collection of TOEFL Reading Comprehension
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