TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT

Listening Section Directions
This test measures your ability to understand conversations and lectures in English.The Listening section is divided into 2 separately timed parts. In each part you will listen to 1 conversation and 2 lectures. You will hear each conversation or lecture only one time.

After each conversation or lecture, you will answer questions about it. The questions typically ask about the main idea and supporting details. Some questions ask about a speaker’s purpose or attitude. Answer the questions based on what is stated or implied by the speakers.

You may take notes while you listen. You may use your notes to help you answer the questions. Your notes will not be scored. If you need to change the volume while you listen, click on the Volume icon at the top of the screen.

In some questions, you will see this icon: This means you will hear, but not see, part of the question. Some of the questions have special directions. These directions appear in a gray box on the screen.

Most questions are worth 1 point. If a question is worth more than 1 point, it will have special directions that indicate how many points you can receive. You must answer each question. After you answer, click on Next. Then click on OK to confirm your answer and go on to the next question. After you click on OK, you cannot return to previous questions.

A clock at the top of the screen will show you how much time is remaining. The clock will not count down while you are listening. The clock will count down only while you are answering the questions.

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT

Question 1-5: Answer the questions.

  1. Why does the man need the woman’s assistance? Choose 2 answers.

0 He does not know the publication date of some reviews he needs.

0 He does not know the location of the library’s video collection of plays.

0  He does not know how to find out where the play is currently being performed.

0  He does not know how to determine wh
ich newspapers he should look at.

  1. What does the woman imply about critical reaction to the play Happy Strangers?

0   Negative critical reaction led to its content being revised after it premiered.

0   The play has always been quite popular among university students.

0   Reactions to the play are more positive nowadays than they were in the past.

0   The play is rarely performed nowadays because critics have never liked it.

  1. What does the woman say about her experience seeing a performance of Happy Strangers when she was younger? Choose 2 answers.

0  It was the first play she had seen performed professionally

0  She saw it against the wishes of her parents.

0  She was surprised at how traditional the performance was.

0  She had a variety of emotional reactions to the play.

  1. What is the man’s attitude toward his current assignment?

0  He is not confident that he will find the materials he needs.

0  He feels that performing in a play is less boring than reading one.

0  He thinks his review of the play will be more objective than the contemporary

0  He is optimistic that he will learn to appreciate the play he is researching.

  1. Listen to Track 2.

0  To ask the man to clarify his request

0  To state the man’s request more precisely

0  To make sure that she heard the man correctly

0  To correct a mistake the man has made

Biology

x

Question 6-11: Listen to part of a lecture from a neuroscience class.



6.What is the lecture mainly about?

0   Methods of observing unusual animal behavior

0   A theory about ways birds attract mates

0   Ways animals behave when they have conflicting drives

o  Criteria for classifying animal behaviors

7. Indicate whether each of the activities below describes a displacement activity. Put a check  in the correct boxes

An animal attacks the ground instead of its enemy
An animal falls asleep in the middle of a mating ritual
An animal eats some food when confronted by its enemy
An animal takes a drink of water after grooming itself.
  1. What does the professor say about disinhibition?

o It can prevent displacement activities from occurring.

o It can cause animals to act on more than one drive at a time.

o It is not useful for explaining many types of displacement activities.

o it is responsible for the appearance of seemingly irrelevant behavior.

  1. According to the lecture, what is one possible reason that displacement activities are often grooming behaviors?

o  Grooming may cause an enemy or predator to be confused,

o  Grooming is a convenient and accessible behavior.

o  Grooming often occurs before eating and drinking.

o  Grooming is a common social activity.

  1. Why does the professor mention the wood thrush?

o To contrast its displacement activities with those of other animal species

o To explain that some animals display displacement activities other than grooming

o To point out how displacement activities are influenced by the environment o

o To give an example of an animal that does not display displacement activities

  1. Listen to Track 4.

o She is impressed by how much the student knows about redirecting.

o She thinks it is time to move on to the next part of this lecture.

o The student’s answer is not an example of a displacement activity.

o The student should suggest a different animal behavior to discuss next.

Question 12-17: Now answer the question

12.What is the main purpose of the lecture?

o To point out similarities in Emerson’s essays and poems

o CD To prepare the students to read an essay by Emerson

o  To compare Emerson’s concept of universal truth to that of other authors

o  To show the influence of early United States society on Emerson’s writing

13.On what basis did Emerson criticize the people of his time?

o  They refused to recognize universal truths.

o  They did not recognize the genius of certain authors.

o  Their convictions were not well-defined.

o  They were too interested in conformity.

14. What does Emerson say about the past?

o  It should guide a person’s present actions.

o  It must be examined closely.

o  It is less important than the future.

o  It lacks both clarity and universal truth

15.What point does the professor make when he mentions a ship’s path?

o It is easy for people to lose sight of their true path.

o Most people are not capable of deciding which path <s best for them.

o The path a person takes can only be seen clearly after the destination has been reached.              .

o A person should establish a goal before deciding which path to take.

16. What point does the professor imply about himself when he experiences he had before becoming a literature professor? Choose 2 answers.

o He did not consider the consequences of his decisions.

o  He did not plan to become a literature professor.

o He has always tried to act consistently.

o He has trusted in himself and his decisions.

17.Listen to Track 6.

o To suggest that United States citizens have not changed much over time

o To encourage the class to find more information about this time period

o To explain why Emerson’s essay has lost some relevance

o To provide background for the concept he is explaining

Question 18-22
18.What is the conversation mainly about?

o Methods for finding appropriate sources for a project

o Reasons the woman is having difficulties with a project

o Criteria the professor uses to evaluate group projects

o Ways to develop the skills needed to work in groups

19. Why does the professor mention the “free-rider” problem?

o To review a concept he explained in class

o To give the student a plan to solve her problem

o To clarify the problem the student is facing

o To explain a benefit of working in groups

20.What is the professor’s opinion of the other students in the woman’s group?

o They try to take credit for work they did not do.

o They did not perform weii in previous courses with him.

o They are more motivated when they are working in a group.

o They do good work when they are interested in the subject.

21.Why did the woman choose property rights as a topic?

o The professor recommended the topic,

o She already had a lot of reference materials on the subject.

o She wanted to learn something new.

o It was easy to research at the school library.

22. What mistakes does the professor imply the woman has made while working on a project? Choose 2 answers.

o Finding sources for her group partners

o Writing the weekly progress reports for her group

o Forgetting to pay attention to the project’s deadlines                                                 ^

o Failing to involve the group members in the selection of a topic

Geology

Question 23-28: Now answer the question.

  1. What does the professor mainly discuss?

O His plans for research involving moving rocks

O A difference between two geological forces that cause rocks to move *

O Theories about why desert rocks move

O  Reasons why geologists should study moving rocks

  1. According to the professor, what have the researchers agreed on?

O The rocks cannot move after ice storms.

O The rocks do not move at night

O The rocks never move in circies.

O  The rocks are not moved by people.

  1. The professor mentions an experiment done five to ten years ago on the wind speed necessary to move rocks. What opinion does the professor express aboutthe experiment?

O The researchers reached the correct conclusion despite some miscalculations.

O The researchers should have chosen a different location for their experiment.

O The experiment should have been conducted on wetter ground.

O The experiment was not continued long enough to achieve clear results.

  1. What important point does the professor make about the area where the rocks are found?

O  It has been the site of Earth’s highest wind speeds.

O  It is subject to laws that restrict experimentation.

O  It is accessible to heavy machinery.

O  It is not subject to significant changes in temperature.

  1. What is the professor’s purpose in telling the students about moving rocks?

O  To teach a lesson about the structure of solid matter

O  To share a recent advance in geology

O  To give an example of how ice can move rocks

O  To show how geologists need to combine information from several fields

  1. Listen to Track 9.

O  The movement pattern of the rocks was misreported by researchers.

O  The rocks are probably being moved by people.

O  The movement pattern of the rocks does not support the wind theory.

O  There must be differences in the rocks’ composition.

United States Government

Question 29-34: Now answer the question.                                                                                                             29. What is the discussion mainly about?

O Reasons the United States government should not support the arts

O The history of government support for the arts in the United States

O Strengths and weaknesses of different government-sponsored arts

O Different ways in which governments can help support artists

30. According to the discussion, in what two ways was the Federal Art Project successful? Choose 2 answers.

O It established standards for art schools.

O it provided jobs for many artists.

O It produced many excellent artists.

O   It gave many people greater access to the arts.

31. The class discusses some important events related to government support for the arts in the United States. Put the events in order from earliest to latest.

Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. You can either write the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence. The first one is

done for you.

1.     The government provided no official support for the art

Answer Choices

O  Arts councils were established in all 50 states of the country.

O   The federal budget supporting the arts was reduced by half.

O  The Federal Art Project helped reduce unemployment.

O  The National Endowment for the Arts was established.

32. Why does the professor mention the Kennedy Center and Lincoln Center?

O To give examples of institutions that benefit from corporate support

O To illustrate why some artists oppose the building of cultural centers O To show how two centers were named after presidents who supported the

O To name two art centers built by the government during the Depression

Task II: Gap-filling

TRACK 1 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to a conversation between a student and a librarian.

Librarian Can I help you?

Student

Yeah, I need to find a [……………………….. ]. It’s for my English class. We have to find reviews of

the [……………………….. ]we’re reading. But they have to be from when the play was first

[…………………….. ]- so I need to know when that was… and I suppose I should start with

newspaper reviews.

Librarian

[…………………….. ]reviews.

Student

Sorry?

Librarian

You want contemporary reviews. What’s the name of the play? Student

It’s [……………………….. ] [………………………… ]. It was written In ,[……………………………… ]and we’re

supposed to write about Its […… ]on American theater-show why It’s been so

important.

Librarian

Well, that certainly explains why your professor wants you to read some of those old reviews.

The [……………………… ]really tore the play to [………………………….. ]when it opened. It was just so

[…………………….. ]—nobody’d ever seen anything like it on the stage.

Student

Really? It was that big a deal?

Librarian

Oh sure. Of course, the critics’ […………………………. ]made some people kinda curious about it; they

wanted to see what was causing all the fuss. In fact, we were on [……………………………… ]in New York

– I had to be, oh around [………………………………………… ] or so—and my parents took me to see it. That

would’ve been about [……………………….. ].

Student

So that was the year it [……………………………………….. ]? Great! But… newspapers from back then aren’t

online, so how do I…

Librarian

Well, we have copies of old newspapers in the [………………………………… ], and all the major papers

publish [………………………. ]guides to their articles, reviews, etc. You’ll find them in the reference

stacks in back. But I’d start with […………………………… ]. I think the play’d been running for a little

while when I saw it.

Student

Oh, how’d you like it? I mean it’s just two characters [……………………………………… ]hanging around and

basically doing nothing.

Librarian

Well, I was impressed: the actors were famous and, besides, it was my first time in a real theater.

But you’re right—it was […………………………. ]different from any plays that we’d read in high

school. Of course, in a small town, the assignments are pretty [……………………………. ].

Student

I’ve only read it, but it doesn’t seem like it’d be much fun to watch. The story doesn’t progress in

a, in any sort of logical […………………………… ]. It doesn’t have any real ending either. It just stops.

[…………………….. ], y’know, I thought it was kinda slow and boring.

Librarian

Well, I guess you might think that, but when I saw it back then it was anything but boring! Some parts were really funny—but I remember crying, too. But I m not sure just reading it… You

know, they’ve done this play at least once on [……………………………… ]. I’m sure there’s a tape of the

play in our video library. You might want to borrow it.

Student

That’s a good idea. I’ll have a better idea of what I really think of it—before I read those reviews. Librarian

I’m sure you’ll be […………………………. ]that anyone ever found it [……………………………. ]—but you’ll

see why it’s still powerful—dramatically speaking.

Student

Well, there must be something about it or the professor wouldn’t have [……………………………. ]it. I’m

sure I’ll figure it out.

TRACK 3 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class. The class is discussing animal behavior.

Professor ..

OK, the next kind of animal behavior 1 want to talk about might be familiar to you.

You may have seen, for example, a bird that’s in the middle of a mating [……………………………………… ].

And, and suddenly it stops and [……………………………… ]—you know, it takes a few moments to

[…………………….. ]its feathers—and then returns     to the mating  ritual. This kind      of behavior—this

doing something that seems completely out of place—is what we call a [ ]activity.

Displacement activities are activities that animals […………………………………….. ]in when they have

conflicting drives—if, if we take our example from a minute ago—if the bird is afraid of its

mate, it’s [ ], it wants to mate, but it’s also afraid and wants to run away, so

instead it starts [ ]itself. So the displacement activity, the, the grooming, the

straightening of its feathers seems to be an […………………………… ]behavior.

So what do you think another example of a displacement activity might be?

Male student

How about an animal that, urn, instead of fighting its enemy or running awav it [ ]a plant or a [    ]?

Professor

That’s a really good suggestion, Carl, but that’s called […………………………….. ]. The animal is

redirecting its behavior to another object, in this case, the plant or the bush. But that’s not an

irrelevant or [………………………. ]behavior—the behavior makes sense—it’s appropriate under the

[…………………….. ], but what doesn’t make sense is the object the behavior’s directed towards.

OK, who else? Carol?

Female student

I think I read in another class about an experiment, um, where an object that the animal was afraid of was put next to its food-next to the animal’s food—and the animal it was conflicted

between [……………………………………… ]the object, and eating the food, so instead it just fell asleep. Like

that?

Professor

That’s exactly what I mean. Displacement [……………………………….. ]because the animal’s got two

conflicting drives, two competing […………………………… ], in this case, fear and hunger—and what

happens is they [……………………………………………………………………………………….. ]each other—they [ ]each other out in a way,

and      a third, seemingly irrelevant behavior surfaces              … through a          process that we call

[…………………….. ].

Now, in disinhibition, the basic idea is that two drives that seem to inhibit, to hold back a third drive, well, well, they get in the way of each other in a, in a conflict situation, and somehow lose control, lose their inhibiting effect on that third behavior… wh-which means that the [………… ]drive [   ]… it-it’s expressed in the animal’s behavior. .

Now, these displacement activities can include feeding, drinking, grooming, even sleeping.

These are what we call “comfort behaviors.” So why do you think […………………………………. ]activities

are so often comfort behaviors, such as grooming?

Male student

Maybe    because  it’s easy for them to do—I                mean, grooming      is    like one    of    the most

[…………………….. ]things an animal can do—it’s    something     they do    all   the time,  and  they have

the-the [………………………. ]right there, on the outside of their bodies in order to do the groom­

ing—or if food is right in front of them. Basically, they don’t have to think very much about those behaviors.

Female student

Professor, isn’t it possible that animals groom because they’ve gotten […………………………………… ]up a

little from fighting or mating? I mean, if a bird’s feathers get [………………………………. ], or an animal’s

fur – maybe it’s not so strange for them to stop and [………………………………….. ]themselves up at that

point.

Professor

That’s another possible reason, although it doesn’t necessarily explain other

[…………………….. ]such as eating, drinking, or sleeping. What’s interesting is that studies have

been done that suggest that the animal’s [……………………………………………. ]may play a part in

[…………………….. ]what kind of behavior it displays. For example, there’s a bird—the wood

[…………………………… ], anyway when the wood thrush is in an attack-[…………………………… ]conflict—

that is, it’s           caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an […………………………… ]—if

it’s sitting on a […………………………………………. ]branch, it’ll wipe its beak on its perch. If it’s sitting on a

[……………………….. ]branch, it II groom its breast feathers. The immediate   environment of the

bird—its immediate, um, its relationship to its immediate environment seems to                     play a part in

which behavior it will display.

TRACK 5 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class Professor

All right, so let me close today’s class with some thoughts to keep in mind while you’re doing

tonight’s [……………………………………….. ]. You’ll be reading one of Ralph Waldo Emerson s best-known

essays, “[………………………………………. ],” and comparing it with his poems and other works. I think this

essay has the [………………………… ]to be quite [………………………… ]for all of you as young people

who probably wonder about things like truth, and where your lives are going … all sorts of [ …………………………… ]questions.

Knowing something about Emerson’s philosophies will help you when you read Self-Reliance.” And basically, one of the main beliefs that he had, was about truth. Not that it’s something that we can be taught… Emerson says it’s found within ourselves.

So this truth … the idea that it’s in each one of us … is one of the first points that you’ll see

Emerson making in this […………………………. ]. It’s a bit [……………………….. ], but he s very into, ah,

into each person believing his or her own thought. Believing in yourself, the thought or [ ]that’s true for you.

But actually, he ties that in with a sort of universal truth, something that everyone knows but

doesn’t [……………………… ]they know. Most of us aren’t in touch with ourselves, in a way, so we

just aren’t capable of [………………………………………………………………………… ]profound truths. It takes [ ]… people

like, say, Shakespeare, who are unique because when they have a […………………………………….. ]of this

truth—this universal truth—they pay [……………………………… ]to it and express it, and don’t just

dismiss it like most people do.

So, Emerson is really into each individual believing in, and trusting, him- or herself. You’ll see

that he writes about… well, first, [……………………………… ]. He criticizes the people of his time, for

[…………………….. ]their own minds        and their own     wills      for   the sake       of  conformity     and

[…………………….. ]. They try to fit in with the rest       of the world, even       though     it’s at   odds   with

their beliefs and their identities. Therefore, it’s best to be a [………………………………….. ]to do your own

thing, not worrying about what other people think. That’s an important point—he really drives this [        ]home throughout the essay.

When you’re reading I want you to think about that, and why that kind of thought would be [       ]to the readers of his time. Remember, this is [………………………………………………………………………………. ]. Self-reliance

was a novel idea at the time, and United States citizens were less [……………………………………….. ]about

themselves as individuals and as Americans. The country as a whole was trying to define itself Emerson wanted to give people something to really think about. Help them find their own way and, ah, what it meant to be who they were.

So, that’s something that I think is definitely as relevant today as it was then … probably, uh …

especially among young adults like […………………………………… ]. You know, uh, college being a time to

sort of really think about who you are and where you’re going.

Now, we already said that Emerson really [……………………………. ] nonconformity, right? As a way to

sort of not lose your own self and [………………………………….. ]in the world? To have your own truth and

not be afraid to listen to it? Well, he takes it a step further. Not conforming also means, ah, not conforming with yourself, or your past. What does that mean? Well, if you’ve always been a certain way, or done a certain thing, but it’s not working for you anymore, or you’re not

content—Emerson says that it’d be foolish to be [………………………………………. ]even with our own past.

Focus on the future, he says: that’s what matters more. [……………………………….. ]is good! He talks about

a ship’s […………………………………. ]—and this is one of the most famous bits of the essay—how the best

voyage is made up of [………………………… ]lines. Up close, it seems a little all over the place, but

from farther away the true path shows, and in the end it justifies all the turns along the way.

So, don’t worry if you’re not sure where you’re headed or what your long-term goals are—stay true to yourself and it’ll make sense in the end. I mean, I can attest to that. Before I was a

literature professor, I was an [……………………………………. ]. Before that, I was a newspaper

[ ]. My life has taken some pretty interesting turns, and here I am, very happy

with my experiences and where they’ve brought me. If you rely on yourself and trust your own [  ], your own interests, don’t worry. Your path will make sense in the end.

TRACK 7 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.

Professor

Hey Jane. You look like you’re in a hurry .. .

Student

Yeah, things’re a little [………………………… ].

Professor

Oh, yeah? What’s going on?

Student

Oh, it’s nothing … Well, since it’s your class … I guess it’s OK … it’s, it s just that I’m having trouble with my group project.

Professor

Ah, yes. Due next week. What’s your group doing again?

Student

It’s about United States Supreme Court [………………………….. ]. We’re looking at the impact of recent

cases on property rights, municipal land use cases, zoning [……………………………… ]…

Professor

Right, OK … And it’s not going well?

Student

Not really. I’m worried about the other two people in my group. They re just sitting back, not really doing their fair share of the work, and waiting for an A. It’s kinda stressing me out,

because we’re getting close to the [………………………….. ]and I feel like I’m doing everything for this

project…

Professor

Ah, the good ole “[……………………….. ]” problem.

Student Free rider?

Professor

Oh, it s just a term that […………………………………. ]this situation: when people in a group seek to get the

benefits of being in the group without contributing to the work… Anyway, what exactly do you mean when you say they just sit back? I mean, they’ve been filing their weekly progress reports with me…

Student

Ves, but I feel like I’m doing […………………………. ]of the work. I hate to sound so negative here but

honestly, they’re taking credit for things they shouldn’t be taking credit for. Like last week in the library, we decided to split up the research into three parts, and then each of us was

[……………………… ]to find sources in the library for our parts. I went off to the stacks and found

some really good [………………………………… ]for my part, but when I got back to our table they were just

goofing off and talking. So I went and got material for their […………………………… ]as well.

Professor

Hmm, you know you shouldn’t do that.

Student

I know, but I didn’t want to risk the project going down the [……………………………. ].

Professor

I know Theresa and Kevin, I’ve had both of them in other courses … so I’m familiar with their work, and their work habits.

Student

I know, me too, and that’s why this has really surprised me.

Professor

Do you … does your group like your topic?

Student

Well, I think we’d all rather focus on cases that deal with personal [……………………………………………. ]—

questions about freedom of speech, things like that—but I chose property rights…

Professor

You chose the topic?

Student

Yeah, I thought it would be good for us, all of us. to try something new.

Professor

Maybe that’s part of the problem—maybe Theresa and Kevin aren’t that [……………………………….. ]about

the topic—and since you picked It… Have you thought… talked to them at       all about picking a

different topic?

Student

But, we’ve already got all the sources. And it’s due next week. We don’t have time to start from

[……………………… ].

Professor

OK, well, I’ll let you go ’cause I know you’re so [……………… ]. But you might… consider

talking to your group about your topic choice …

Student

I’ll think about it. Gotta run. See you in class.

TRACK 8 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a geology class.

Professor

Now, we’ve got a few minutes before we leave for today. So I’ll just touch on an interesting subject that I think makes an important point. We’ve been covering […………………………………………………………………………… ], and

different types of rocks, for the last […………………………….. ]weeks, but next week we’re going to do

something a little bit different. And to get started I thought I’d mention something that shows

how, uh, as a [……………………….. ], you need to know about more than just rocks and the structure

of [……………………… ]matter. Moving rocks. You may have heard about them.

It’s quite a [………………………… ]. Death Valley is this desert plain … a dry [………………………………… ]in

California, surrounded by mountains, and on the desert floor are these [……………………………….. ]rocks

… some of them hundreds of [……………… ]… and they move! They leave long

[……………………… ]behind them tracks you might say—as they move from one point to another.

But nobody has been able to figure out how they’re moving because no one has ever seen it

happen. Now there are a lot of [………………………….. ], but all we know for sure is that people aren’t

moving the rocks. There’re no […………………………………… ], no tire tracks, and no heavy

[…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ]—like a [……….. ], uh, nothing was ever brought in to move these

heavy rocks.

So what’s going on? Theory number one: wind. Some researchers think powerful, uh,

[……………………… ]might move the rocks. Most of the rocks move in the same direction as the

[……………………… ]wind pattern, from southwest to northeast. But some, and this is interesting,

move straight west, while some [………………………… ]… or even move in large [………………………….. ].

Hmmm .. . how can that be? How ’bout wind combined with rain? The ground of this desert is

made of clay. It’s a desert, so it’s dry. But when there is the [……………………………………. ]rain, the clay

ground becomes extremely [………………………… ]. It’s hard for anyone to stand on, walk on.

So, one theory was that perhaps when the ground is slippery, high winds can then move the

rocks. But five or ten years ago a team of scientists tested that [………………………………………….. ]. They

experimented by flooding an area of the desert with water, and then trying to establish how much

wind [……………………….. ]would be necessary to move the rocks. They calculated that it would

take winds of at least [………………………… ]an hour to move the rocks. And since winds that strong

don’t occur anywhere on Earth, they […………………………… ]that the wind wasn’t the cause, even with

[……………………… ]ground. Now, more recent research suggests that it would take winds of only

[……………………… ] miles an hour, not [……………………………… ], but even winds that strong don’t occur

in Death Valley. So the original experiment’s conclusion that wind is not the [     ] seems right.

Here’s another possibility: ice. It’s possible that rain on the desert floor could turn to thin

[……………………… ]of ice when temperatures             drop at      night.   So, if          rocks, uh, become

[……………………… ]in ice, um,             OK,    could  a piece         of ice with             rocks in         it   be

[……………………… ]around by the wind? Makes sense, but there’s           a problem with this theory      too.

Rocks [……………………… ]in ice together would have moved together when the ice moved. But

that doesn’t always happen. The rocks seem to take [……………………………… ]routes. Nevertheless, ice

is probably involved, we just don’t quite know how yet. And of course there are other

[…………………………. ]. Maybe the ground […………………………. ], or maybe the ground itself is shifting,

tilting. Maybe the rocks are moved by a [……………………………. force. Uh, but sadly, all these ideas

have been eliminated as possibilities. There’s just not enough [……………………………. ].

I bet you’re saying to yourself, well, why don’t scientists just set up video […………………………………. ]to

record what actually happens? Thing is, this is a protected [………………………………… ]area, so by law,

that type of research isn’t allowed. Besides, in powerful windstorms, [………………………………… ]camera

equipment would be destroyed. So why can’t researchers just live there for a while until they observe the rocks moving? Same reason.

So where are we now? Well, despite some recent progress, we still don’t have definite answers. So all this leads back to my main point. You need to know about more than just rocks as

[……………………… ]. The researchers studying moving rocks, well, they combined their

knowledge of rocks with knowledge of wind, ice, and such, uh, not successfully, not yet, but y’know … they wouldn’t even have been able to get started without, uh … earth science

understanding. Knowledge about wind … storms … you know, [………………………………. ]. You need to

understand [……………………….. ]. So for several weeks, like I said, we II be addressing geology

from a wider perspective. I guess that’s all for today. See you next time.

TRACK 10 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to part of a discussion in a United States government class.

Professor

OK, last time we were talking about [……………………………………… ]support for the arts. Who can sum up

some of the main points? Frank?

Male student

Well, I guess there wasn’t really any, you know, official government support for the arts until the

[……………………… ]century. But the first attempt the United States government made to, you

know, to support the arts was the Federal Art Project.

Professor

Right. So, what can you say about the project?

Male student

Um, it was started during the [………………………….. ], um, in the [……………………….. ], to employ out-

of-work artists.

Professor

So was it successful? Janet? What do you say?

Female student

Yeah, sure, it was successful—I mean, for one thing, the project [………………………………… ]a lot of, like,

community art centers and, uh, galleries in places like rural areas where people hadn’t really had [ ]to the arts.

Professor

Right.

Male student

Yeah, but didn’t the government end up wasting a lot of money for art that wasn’t even very good?

Professor

Uh, some people might say that, but wasn’t the primary […………………………………. ]of the Federal Art

Project to [………………………… ]jobs?

Male student

That’s true. I mean, it did provide jobs for thousands of […………………………… ]artists.

Professor

Right, but then, when the United States became involved in the Second World War, unemployment was down, and it seemed that these programs weren t really necessary any longer.

So, moving on … we don’t actually see any […………………………………. ], well, any real government

[…………………….. ]in the arts again until the early […………………………… ], when President Kennedy

and other politicians started to [………………… ]for major funding to support and

[…………………….. ]the arts. It was felt by a number of politicians that, well, that the government

had a [ ]to … uh, support the arts as sort of, oh what can we say, the soul, or

spirit of the country. The idea was that there’d be a federal […………………………… ], uh, financial

[…………………….. ]to artists and artistic or cultural [……………………………………….. ]. And for just those

reasons, in [………………………. ], the National Endowment for the Arts was created.

So, it was through the NEA, the National Endowment for the Arts, um, that the t would develop, would be promoted throughout the nation. And then, individual states throughout the country

started to establish their own state arts [……………………………… ]to help support the arts. There was

kind of a cultural […………………………….. ]—and by the mid-[…………………………. ], by 1974 I think, all

[…………………….. ] states had their own arts [………………………… ], their own state arts councils that

worked with the federal government, with corporations, artists, performers, you name it.

Male student

Did you just say [………………………. ]? How were they involved?

Professor

Well, you see, corporations aren’t always [……………………………… ], they might not support the arts

unless … well, unless the government made it attractive for them to do so, by offering

corporations tax [………………………. ]to support the arts—that is by letting corporations pay less in

taxes if they were […………………………………… ]of the arts. Uh, the Kennedy Center in Washington D.C.,

you may, maybe you’ve been there, or Lincoln Center in New York. Both of these were built

with [……………………….. financial support from corporations. And the Kennedy and Lincoln

Centers aren’t the only examples—many of your cultural establishments in the United States will

have a [………………………….. ]somewhere acknowledging the support, the money, they’ve

[……………………… from whatever corporation. Yes, Janet?

Female student

But aren’t there a lot of people who don’t think it’s the government’s role to support the arts? Professor

Well, as a matter of fact, a lot of [………………………………….. ]who did not believe in government support

for the arts, they wanted to do away with the agency [………………………………….. for that very reason—to

get rid of governmental support—but they only succeeded in taking away about half the annual

[……………………… ]. And as far as the public goes .. . well, there are about as many individuals

who disagree with government support as there are those who agree – in fact, with artists in

particular, you have lots of artists who support—and who have [……………………………………. from this

agency, although it seems that just as many artists […………………………… ]a government agency being

involved in the arts for many different reasons—reasons like they don’t want the government to control what they create. In other words … the arguments both for and against government

funding of the arts are as many and, and as […………………………… ]as the individual styles of the

artists who hold them.

TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 27 from Mastering skills for TOEFL IBT
5 (100%) 2 votes

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