TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 01 – Solution and Explanation

1. (D) 2. (A) 3.(C) 4. (A) 5. (A) 6. (D) 7.(0 8. (B) 9. (D) 10. (A) 11. (D) 12. (D) 13.0 14. (B), (E), (F)

1.    Reference | (D)

Q. The phrase His source in the passage refers to

Why? … it has been estimated that the oceans could provide nearly 3,000 times the energy generated by hydroelectric dams such as the Hoover Dam. Yet, this source remains quite difficult to exploit.==>See Clue 1(D)[lines 7-11]

2.    Vocabulary | (A)

Q. The word exploit in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? utilize can replace exploit in this context.

•    exploit v. to use something completely

•    utilize v. to use something for a specific purpose

3. Rhetorical Purpose | (C)

Q. Why does the author mention The Hoover Dam in paragraph 1?

Why? The Hoover Dam is mentioned in order to draw a comparison between two sources of renewable energy, oceans and hydroelectric dams. ==>See Clue 3(C)[lines 7-10]

4. Factual Information | (A)

Q. In paragraph 2, the author states that

Why? Waves are exemplified as one of the forms of ocean power. ==>See Clue 4(A)[lines 14-17] mm Why Not? (BHD) Not mentioned

5. Vocabulary | (A)

Q. The word induce in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? cause can replace induce in this context ==>See Clue 5(A)[lines 26-28]

•    induce v. to cause a certain physical condition

•    cause v. to make something occur

6. Factual Information | (D)

Q. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true about wave-power technologies?

Why? ==>See Clue 6(D)[lines 25-28]

► All of them work because the movement of the water that the waves induce creates storable energy…

— rely on the water’s motion to create electricity _ Why Not? (A), (B) Incorrect ==>See lines 39-42/ (C) Incorrect ==>See lines 24-25

7. Factual Information | (C)

Q. According to paragraph 5, what part did the cables play in OSPREY’s design?

_ Why? ==>See Clue 7(C)[lines 70-72]

The electricity was then transmitted to power collectors on the shore via underwater cables.

— They conducted the electricity from the generator to the shore

8. Vocabulary | (B)

Q. The word inhibited in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? prevented can replace inhibited in this context. “==>See Clue 8(B)[lines 83-86]

•    inhibit v. to stop something from developing well

•    prevent v. to keep something from happening, or keep someone from doing something

9. Vocabulary | (D)

Q. The word feasible in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? appropriate can replace feasible in this context. ==>See Clue 9(D)[lines 94-95]

•    feasible adj. plan, idea, or method that is likely to work

•    appropriate adj. suitable for a specific time, situation, or purpose

10. Sentence Simplification | (A)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? For example, despite the relative abundance of proposed wave-power devices, // many have not been adequately tested, and most have been evaluated // only in artificial pools where they are not subjected to the harsh marine conditions that exist in actual oceans, ocean conditions

Why Not? (B) Information about the marine conditions in actual oceans is left out.

(C)    Information about the ocean-based energy industry is not mentioned.

(D)    Information that testing wave-energy collectors can lead to inconclusive results is not mentioned.

11. Inference | (D)

Q. What can be inferred from paragraph 7 about governments?

Why? (D) can be inferred from the information in lines 84-86. ==>See Clue 11(D) m Why Not? (A)-(C) Not supported

12. Negative Fact | (D)

Q. All of these are problems associated with the collection of wave energy EXCEPT

Incorrect Answer Choices Mentioned in the passage
(A) the difficulty of finding feasible locations [lines 94-95] determining feasible locations
(B) the destructive power of the ocean [line 93] the sea’s destructive forces

 

13. Insert Text | D

Q.  Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? C Also, these methods demand the construction of site-specific machines that take into consideration average local wave heights and sea conditions. D Such a requirement can be quite cost-prohibitive, because engineers must create unique power generation mechanisms for each site. In other words, the ability to get power from waves differs from region to region.

► ‘Such a requirement” in the given sentence refers to “the construction of site-specific machines.” And the decisive clue is the connection between ‘demand’ and “requirement.” In other words is used to mention the preceding information again.

14. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? The quest to establish a reliable source of renewable energy has led researchers to explore a variety of means of harnessing the energy of ocean waves.

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) Several different methods of gathering wave energy have been developed, including floating generators and partially submerged air chambers with turbines. Clue 14(B)[lines 24-25] There are several methods by which ocean-wave energy can be collected.

(line 31] a long floating tube

[lines 35-36] the tube that can be used to drive a

generator

[lines 41-46] compress air in a partially submerged chamber…. Located inside this tunnel is a turbine connected to a power generator.

(E) Some of the advantages offered by ocean energy include low maintenance costs, little or no environmental harm, and huge production levels. Clue 14(E)[lines 79-82] Maintenance costs are small, and the equipment does not pose any threats of environmental pollution. And best of all, the amounts of energy produced are enormous.
(F) Wave-energy projects are confronted by many problems, particularly the great diversity of ocean sites and the difficulty of avoiding damage to the equipment. Clue 14(F)[lines 59-60] the ability to get power from waves differs from region to region [lines 92-96] Protecting the equipment from the sea’s destructive forces … also present formidable challenges.

► The whole passage focuses on the methods of using wave energy and their advantages and difficulties. And it follows that ((B) Several methods of collecting wave energy —»(E) Advantages of wave energy —» (F) Difficulties in using wave energy) –See (Graphic Organizer) on p. 237 

Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 17-20, but minor / (C), (D) Not mentioned

KEY

15. (C) 16. (C) 17. (A) 18. (A) 19. (B) 20. (C) 21. (A) 22. (B) 23. (B) 24. (C) 25. (C) 26. Ancient Egyptian Sculpture: (A), (G), (H), (I) / Ancient Greek Sculpture: (B), (C), (D)

15. Rhetorical Purpose | (C)

Q. In paragraph 1, the author explains the consistency of ancient Egyptian sculptural art by

Why? –See Clue 15(C) [lines 3-6]

16.    Sentence Simplification I (C)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? In order to understand the sculptural art produced by ancient Egyptians, it is essential to consider the nature of their culture—// it had a deeply religious orientation, // which is evident in frequent depictions of divine figures, like deities and pharaohs.

Why Not? (A) Information about the difficulty of comprehending ancient Egyptian sculptures is not mentioned.

(B) Information that ancient Egyptian sculptures have been an important art form is not mentioned.

(D) Information that the nature of their culture should be considered to understand ancient Egyptian sculptures is left out.

17.    Factual Information | (A)

Q. According to paragraph 2, the conventions that ancient Egyptian sculptors followed

Why? ==>See Clue 17(A)[lines 17-20]

► … an ancient Egyptian artist’s primary concern was to express the essence of the figure—that is, the permanent aspect of a human being …

Why Not? (B), (D) Not mentioned / (C) Incorrect »See lines 30-32

18.    Vocabulary | (A)

Q. The word intentional in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? deliberate can replace intentional in this context. ==>See Clue 18(A)[lines 26-28, 30-32]

•    intentional adj. done deliberately and specifically

•    deliberate adj. intended with full awareness

19.    Factual Information | (B)

Q. According to paragraph 3, many ancient Egyptian sculptures had block-shaped bases because

Why? ==>See Clue 19(B) [Lines 41-43]

artists tried to evoke a sense of stability by fixing figures on sturdy block-shaped bases

Why Not? (A), (C) Not mentioned / (D) Incorrect ==>See lines 36-38

20. Rhetorical Purpose | (C)

Q. Why does the author mention the year 500 BC in paragraph 5?

Why? The year 500 BC is mentioned in order to indicate there was an important change in Greek sculpture from being symbolic to realistic. ==>See Clue 20(C)[lines 67-72]

21. Vocabulary | (A)

Q. The word probed in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? investigated can replace probed in this context. ==>See Clue 21(A)[lines 73-75]

•    probe v. to look for or analyze something, often using a tool

•    investigate v. to try to uncover the truth about or the cause of something like a crime, accident, or scientific problem

22. Vocabulary | (B)

Q. The word endeavored in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? attempted can replace endeavored in this context. ==>See Clue 22(B)[lines 82-85]

•    attempt v. to try and do something, particularly something difficult

•    endeavor v. to try with effort

23. Vocabulary | (B)

Q. The word solely in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? exclusively can replace solely in this context.

•    solely adv. not including anything or anyone else

•    exclusively adv. only

24. Reference | (C)

Q. The word it in the passage refers to

Why? These notions about the human form were primarily influenced by each culture’s worldview and the expectations about the role of humans within it ==>See Clue 24<C)[lines 106-109]

25. Insert Text | (C)

Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? B Individuality was an important theme for a culture so invested in the concept of democracy.

C This ideal was conveyed in sculpture by accurately representing the human body. Unfortunately, much of the original work of ancient Greek sculptors has been lost or disfigured, sometimes purposely destroyed and other times damaged by neglect. D

► ‘This ideal” in the given sentence refers to ‘Individuality.’

26. Schematic table

Q. Directions: Complete the table by matching the phrases below.

Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the type of sculpture to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.

Why?

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
Ancient Egyptian Sculpture (A) Tried to represent the permanent essence of human beings Clue 26(A)[lines 17-20] an ancient Egyptian artist’s primary concern was to express the essence of the figure— that is, the permanent aspect of a human being
(G) Used poses that were very balanced and vertical Clue 26(G)[lines 36-37] sculptors depicted humans in rigid, balanced poses [lines 38-39] Figures appear very vertical and motionless.
(H) Was durable enough for much of it to survive for thousands of years Clue 26(H)[lines 44-47] they made Egyptian sculptures particularly enduring—so much so that many of these well-preserved works of art survive today
(1) Was functional in a religious sense, helping people communicate with the divine Clue 26( 1 ([lines 50-52] these symbolic art forms were considered functional, as they helped link the Egyptians with the divine
Ancient Greek Sculpture (B) Underwent a stylistic change, rejecting idealized forms in favor of realistic figures Clue 26<B)[lines 64-67] Initially, ancient Greek sculptures._ depicted idealized human forms rather than actual people, [lines 69-72] that changed … and in 500 BC Greek sculptors began to model their figures on real individuals
(C) Was often produced purely for the sake of making art Clue 26<C)[lines 97-98] many were created to be nothing more than art
(D) Adopted conventions that set proportions for human bodies Clue 26<D)[lines 78-79] the ancient Greeks’ guidelines established lifelike human proportions

Why Not? (E) Not mentioned / (F) Incorrect ==>See lines 9-10, 95-97

KEY

27. (C) 28. (B) 29. (A) 30. (C) 31. (B) 32. (A) 33. (B) 34. (D) 35. (D) 36. (D) 37. (A) 38.0    39.    (B),    (C),    (F)

27. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word awuad in the passage is closest in meaning to

•    Why? resulted can replace ensued in this context. ==>See Clue 27(C)[lines 12-15]

•    ensue v. to occur after or as a result of something

•    result v. to be caused by something

28. Factual Information I (B)

Q. According to paragraph 2, what factor is responsible for the manatee’s inability to survive in cold water?

Why? ==>See Clue 28(B)]lines 22 26]

29. Inference I (A)

Q. From the information in paragraph 3, what can be inferred about species recognized as endangered?

Why? (A) can be inferred from the information in lines 50-55. ==>See Clue 29(A)

Why Not? (C), (D) Incorrect because this information is true of only manatees, not the endangered species.

30. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word detrimental in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? harmful can replace detrimental in this context. ==>See Clue 30(C)[lines 63-65]

•    detrimental adj. causing damage

•    harmful adj. causing or likely to cause injury

31. Sentence Simplification i (B)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? Collisions with watercraft are the leading cause of death for the Florida manatee, // accounting for 25 percent of all recorded mortalities, and some research has found that // as many as 90 percent of observed Florida manatees bear scars from run-ins with boat propellers.

Why Not? (A), (C) Incorrect / (D) Information about the manatees’ injuries from the encounters with watercrafts is left out.

32. Rhetorical Purpose | (A)

Q. Why does the author present the arguments of the boating and fishing communities in paragraph 5?

Why? The arguments of the boating and fishing communities are mentioned in order to show that there are disagreements between them and the conservationists over the manatee protection issue. ==>See Clue 32{A)[lines 72-781

33. Reference I (B)

Q. The word it in the passage refers to

Why? However, this increase may be due as much to advances in surveying techniques, which simply enable counters to find more manatees, as it is to an actual rise in population. ==>See Clue 33(B)[lines 81-85]

34. Vocabulary | (D)

Q. The word contention in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? disagreement can replace contention in this context. ==>See Clue 34<D)[lines 85-86]

•    contention n. disagreement between people

•    disagreement n. differences between two things or people that ought to be similar

35. Inference | (D)

Q. According to the passage, which of the following statements most accurately reflects the author’s opinion about the Florida manatee?

Why? It can be inferred that the author thinks the Florida manatee should be protected in the future because he opposes the argument that refuge zones are not necessary in lines 81-90. ==>See Clue 35(D) m Why Not? (A), (C) Not supported / (B) Incorrect ==>See lines 86-90

36. Factual Information I (D)

Q. According to paragraph 6, which of the following is true about manatees?

Why? -See Clue 36(D)[lines 97-99]

Why Not? (A), (B) Not mentioned / (C) Incorrect ==>See lines 92 94

37. Negative Fact I (A)

Q. All of these are mentioned in the passage as threats to the Florida manatee EXCEPT

Why Not?

Incorrect Answer Choices Mentioned in the passage
(B) toxic water plants [line 30] poisonous marine algae
(C) submerged fishing equipment [lines 43-44] discarded fishing lines and nets
(D) the loss of feeding grounds [line 35] the loss of habitat

38. Insert Text | B

Q. Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? A. As awareness about the plight of the Florida manatee spreads, the majority of the public chooses to support efforts to protect the creatures B. Conservation groups funded by private donations have played a key role in promoting this understanding. The manatee is now a recognized symbol of Florida’s wildlife and has become well known throughout the world. “this understanding’ in the given sentence refers to ‘awareness about the plight of the Florida manatee.”

39. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? The manatee has always faced certain natural dangers in the waters around Florida, but in modern times humans pose the greatest threat to the survival of the species.

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) Coastal development projects and pollution runoff destroy marine environments that provide manatees with the resources that are essential to their survival. Clue 39(B)[lines 33-37] the biggest threats to the survival of the manatee come from human activities. One major concern is the loss of habitat due to increases in land development and the introduction of pollutants to the environment.
(C) Boating collisions are responsible for a quarter of all Florida manatee deaths and inhibit the species’ ability to multiply. Clue 39(C)[lines 57-60] Collisions with watercraft are the leading cause of death for the Florida manatee, accounting for 25 percent of all recorded mortalities [lines 65-68] This is detrimental to the overall population, because it affects the manatees best able to multiply the species.
(F) Though some organizations have taken a leading role in protecting the manatee, others strongly oppose the expansion of conservation measures. Clue 39(F)[lines 53-55] conservationists are hoping to both expand the existing areas and establish new protection zones

[lines 72-75] These conservationist measures have angered the region’s boating and fishing communities, who see no need for such restrictions.

► The whole passage focuses on the manatee facing the threat to their survival and the necessity of protecting them. And it follows that (B) Threat to the manatee’s habitat due to human activities — (C) Boating collisions that cause Florida manatee deaths —* (F) Disputes between environment organizations and interest groups over conservation measures)

==>See <Graphic Organizer> on p.249 

Why Not? (A) Incorrect ==>See lines 8-9/(D) Mentioned in lines 48-50, but minor / (E) Not mentioned

 

TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 01 – Solution and Explanation
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