1. Factual Information | (A)
Q. In paragraph 1, the author describes the study of the cell as
Why? ^See Clue 1(A)[lines 13-16]
The knowledge of cells that scientists enjoy today is the result of an accumulation of many individual discoveries and achievements.
Why Not? (B)-(D) Not mentioned
2. Vocabulary | (C)
Q. The word undetected in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? unseen can replace undetected in this context. **See Clue 2(C)[lines 17-19]
undetected adj. not perceived or discerned
• unseen adj. not seen or perceived
3. Sentence Simplification | (B)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? Thus, one very important occurrence in the history of the understanding of the cell // took place in 1595 with the invention of the first compound microscope—that is, the first microscope to make use of more of the first multiple-lens microscope was than one lens in its magnification process.
Why Not? (A) Not supported
(C), (D) Information that the invention of the compound microscope played an important role in cell research history is left out.
4. Vocabulary | (A)
Q. The word slivers in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? slices can replace slivers in this context. **-See Clue 4(A)[lines 35-38]
sliver n. small, often sharp portion that has been cut or broken off something
slice n. thin, flat piece cut from a larger whole
5. Reference | (D)
Q. The word it in the passage refers to
Why? … a lack of advancement in microscope designs made it impossible for more in-depth research on the cell to be conducted. In the 1800s, however, it began again at a remarkable pace. ~See Clue 5(D)[lines 47-51]
6. Rhetorical Purpose | (D)
Q. In paragraph 4, the author introduces the Cell Theory by
Why? The Cell Theory formulated by Schwann is introduced after discussing Brown’s nucleus discovery and Schleiden and Schwann’s research. <*See Clue 6(D)[lines 58-66]
7. Vocabulary | (B)
Q. The word formulated in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? developed can replace formulated in this context. —See Clue 7(B)[lines 66-67]
• formulate v. to develop an idea, or a plan
• develop v. to elaborate or expand in detail
8. Factual Information | (C)
Q. According to the passage, the person who first determined what lies at the center of a plant’s cell was
Why? -See Clue 8<C)[lines 58-60]
9. Factual Information | (D)
Q. According to paragraph 5, how did Rudolf Virchow change the original Cell Theory?
Why? —See Clue 9(D][lines 79-82]
Why Not? (AHC) Not mentioned
10. Vocabulary | (C)
Q. The word asserting in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? declaring can replace asserting in this context. —See Clue 10(C)[lines 79-82]
• assert v. to state something firmly
• declare v. to state officially about a particular situation existing
11. Rhetorical Purpose | (C)
Q. Why does the author mention in paragraph 6?
Why? Science and medicine are mentioned to show that there will be innovations in these fields owing to cellular research. —See Clue 1 C [lines 93-96]
12. Insert Text | Q
Q. Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? [B] These were in fact the walls of dead cells, since cork comes from dead plant material. [C] Hooke decided to call these chambers ‘cells” because they reminded him of the small monastery cells that monks lived in. [D] Now, with concrete evidence of its existence, the study off the cell had begun. For more than a century after Hooke’s discovery, a lack of advancement in microscope designs made it impossible for more in-depth research on the cell to be conducted.
► “concrete evidence of its existence’ in the given sentence refers to the discovery of the cell and its naming in the preceding sentences.
13. Prose Summary
Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Why? It took centuries of scientific thought and research to achieve the understanding of the cell that is shared by scientists today.
|Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage|
|(B) Using a newly introduced microscope to look at cork samples, Robert Hooke was able for the first time to observe the presence of cells.||Clue 13(B)[lines 33-38] It was such a device that allowed English scientist Robert Hooke in 1663 to become the first known human to observe a cell. He cut some thin slivers of cork … and viewed them under the microscope.|
|(C) In the early 1800s, cytoplasm and nuclei were both discovered to be important components of plant cells, and the first Cell Theory was introduced.||Clue 13(C)[lines 51-60] During the early part of the century,… Living plant cells, as opposed to those of Hooke’s cork samples, were found to contain a variety of smaller elements surrounded by a liquid mixture termed “cytoplasm.” In 1833, the naturalist Robert Brown discovered the nucleus, or central structure, of plant cells.
[lines 66-67] Schwann subsequently formulated what became known as the Cell Theory.
|(E) The Cell Theory was soon revised to include new information about cellular reproduction and became the foundation of modern cellular study.||Clue 13(E)[lines 79-82] Rudolf Virchow corrected this misunderstanding, asserting that cells reproduce by dividing and that they can only be created by other cells.
[lines 84-86] formalizing the version of the Cell Theory that has remained mostly unchanged to this day
► The whole passage focuses on the history of cell study. And it follows that <(B) Robert Hooke’s first discovery of cells and its background —• (C) Development of cell study and the establishment of the Cell Theory — (E) Revision of the Cell Theory and its status) -»-See < Graphic Organizer> on p.291
Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 19-27, but minor / (D) Incorrect –See lines 70-74/ (F) Mentioned in lines 87-90, but minor..
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