1. Vocabulary I (A)
Q. The word evolving in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? developing can replace evolving in this context. —See Clue 1(A)[lines 2-5]
evolve v. to slowly develop and change
develop v. to change in a process into something greater
2. Rhetorical Purpose i (D)
Q. In paragraph 2, the author explains Piaget’s stages of childhood development by
Why? Piaget’s stages of childhood development are explained by describing the characteristics of each stage in terms of the ages and the levels of awareness of the external world. —See Clue 2(D)[lines 9-12] or Why Not? (A) Incorrect (The author does not narrate stories.)
3. Reference I (A)
Q. The word they in the passage refers to
Why? … children remain in the sensorimotor stage, progressing through substages until they have developed the ability to accomplish objectives by planning steps toward a goal. —See Clue 3(A)[lines 18-22]
4. Inference I (D)
Q. According to paragraph 2, what can be inferred about a child’s method of problem solving before the concrete operational stage?
Why? (D) can be inferred from the information in lines 26-27. —See Clue 4(D)
Why Not? (A), (B) Not supported / (C) Incorrect —See lines 26-29
5. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word abstract in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? conceptual can replace abstract in this context. —See Clue 5(B)[lines 43-44]
abstract adj. based on vague ideas c
onceptual adj. dealing with ideas
6. Factual Information I (C)
Q. According to paragraph 2, the formal operational stage
Why? -See Clue 6(C)[lines 38-40w 44-46]
According to Piaget’s theory, this stage represents a person’s way of thinking at its most sophisticated.
Why Not? (A) Incorrect —See lines 36-41 / (B) Not mentioned / (D) Incorrect —See lines 26-29
7. Factual Information I (A)
Q. According to paragraph 2, the developmental stage when a child’s reflexes are most important is
Why? -See Clue 7(A)[lines 14-15]
8. Vocabulary I (A)
Q. The word absorbed In the passage Is closest in meaning to
Why? accepted can replace absorbed in this context. ^See Clue 8(A)[lines 67-71]
• absorb v. to understand something new
• accept v. to take something in and agree to it
9. Rhetorical Purpose I (C)
Q. Why does the author mention cats in paragraph 3?
» Why? Cats are mentioned as an example in order to explain the process of assimilation and accommodation. *See Clue 9(C)[lines 77-82]
10. Rhetorical Purpose I (A)
Q. Why does the author mention the1920s in paragraph 4?
Why? The 1920s is mentioned in order to emphasize how long Piaget’s theory has remained influential. ~See Clue 10(A)[lines 83-87]
11. Factual Information I (A)
Q. According to paragraph 4, some psychologists have criticized Piaget’s theory
Why? *rSee Clue 11 (A)[lines 89-91]
► … some psychologists have questioned whether children actually go through stages as Piaget conceptualized them … mm Why Not? (B)-(D) Not mentioned
12. Sentence Simplification I (C)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? Although there has been some criticism of his work — // some psychologists have questioned whether children actually go through stages as Piaget conceptualized them, and others have added that some people never attain the final stage, the formal operational stage —II Piaget’s theories still remain relevant and persuasive in modern developmental psychology. hi Why Not? (A), (B) Incorrect
(D) Information that some psychologists have questions about his theory is left out.
13. Insert Text ! [A]
Q. Look at the four squares [I] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? A child’s progress through these stages is determined by a process of learning that Piaget (two basic steps of a child’s learning) described in two basic steps: assimilation, the incorporation of new information into existing thought patterns—notions about how the world operates; and accommodation, the alteration of the present cognitive structure to accommodate the new information. Q These two steps allow children to develop working theories about their surroundings that help them to property adapt. Piaget reasoned that a biological drive motivates children to make sense of their environments and then develop ideas about how the world operates. El
► “These two steps” in the given sentence refers to the “two basic steps: assimilation and accommodation.” “Their surroundings” in the given sentence is changed to “their environments” in the following sentence.
14. Prose Summary
Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Why? Piaget’s cognitive development theory suggests that childhood development progresses through distinct stages.
|Correct Answer Choices||Clues in the passage|
|(C) The characteristic behaviors of the four stages begin with babies’ reflexes in the sensorimotor stage and develop into sophisticated interactions in the formal operational stage.||Clue 14(C)[lines 9-15] Piaget conceived four stages of childhood development… At birth, children are in the first stage of development—the sensorimotor stage—exercising their reflexes (lines 38-40] children progress to the final stage of development, the formal operational stage
[lines 45-46] this stage (the formal operational stage) represents a person’s way of thinking at its most sophisticated
|(E) Children learn new things through a learning process that involves assimilating and accommodating information about the world around them.||Clue 14(E)[lines 47-52] A child’s progress through these stages is determined by a process of learning that Piaget described in two basic steps: assimilation,… accommodation|
|(F) Although some people have doubted that children develop in stages like Piaget proposed, his cognitive development theory continues to be a central idea in psychology.||Clue 14(F)[lines 87-91] Although there has been some criticism of his work—some psychologists have questioned whether children actually go through stages as Piaget conceptualized them
[lines 93-95] Piaget’s theories still remain relevant and persuasive in modern developmental psychology.
► The whole passage focuses on the four stages of childhood development of Piaget’s cognitive development theory. And it follows that <(C) The four stages of childhood development — (E) Two basic steps of a child’s learning: assimilation and accommodation —► (F) Continual influence of Piaget’s theory on psychology) –See on p.435 tm. Why Not? (A) Not mentioned / (B) Mentioned in lines 35-36, but minor / (D) Mentioned in lines 91-93, but minor