TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 14 Solution & Explanation

SOLUTION & EXPLANATION FOR TOEFL IBT READING PRACTICE TEST 14 ( FROM TOEFL IBT IVY’S READING 15 ACTUAL TESTS)

KEY

1. (A) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (A) 5. (B) 6. (A) 7. (D) 8. (B) 9. (A) 10. (B) 11.(A) 12. (B), (D), (E)

1. Reference 1 (A)

Q.  The word them in the passage refers to

Why? Knowing the length of a year was important for farmers, who relied on seasonal changes in constellations to help  them determine when to plant their crops. See Clue 1(A)[lines 4-8]

 

2. Factual Information I (C)

Q. According to paragraph 1, why did the Greeks originally observe constellations?

Why? **See Clue 2(C)[lines 6-8]

► … who relied on seasonal changes in constellations to help them determine when to plant their crops.

Why Not? (A), (B), (D) Not mentioned

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 14

3. Vocabulary I (A)

CL The word  Impelled in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? Oliver? can replace Impelled in this context.

impel v. to drive forward

drive v. to strongly influence or force somebody to do something

 

4. Rhetorical Purpose I (A)

Q. In paragraph 3, why does the author mention that Philolaus was a Pythagorean?

Why? That Philolaus was a Pythagorean is mentioned in order to clarify that he is one of the followers of Pythagoras, who had legitimate theories about the universe. »See Clue 4(A)[lines 33-35, 36]

 

5. Vocabulary I (B)

Q. The word conjecture in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? guess can replace conjecture in this context.

conjecture v. to form an idea without much information

guess v. to try to answer a question without knowing the outcome

 

6. Vocabulary I (A)

Q. The word  elucidate in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? clarify can replace elucidate in this context. See Clue 6<A)[lines 68-70]

elucidate v. to explain something more clearly using more information

clarify v. to make something easier to understand

 

7. Sentence Simplification I (D)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? However, the most damaging consequences of Aristotle’s musings in astronomy were not so much the concepts themselves as the role they played in misdirecting generations of Greek scientists, // for, as a cultural leader, Aristotle’s opinions were simultaneously highly regarded and leniently analyzed.

Because he was well respected, Aristotle faced little criticism  

Why Not? (A), (C) Incorrect / (B) Not mentioned

 

8. Vocabulary I (B)

Q. The phrase held in esteem in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? respected can replace held in esteem in this context. —See Clue 8{B)[lines 81-85]

hold in esteem to respect or have a high regard of someone

respect v. to admire or look up to something or someone

 

9. Inference I (A)

Q. What can be inferred about the Greek predecessors of Hipparchus mentioned in paragraph 5?

Why? (A) can be inferred from the information in lines 91-94. —See Clue 9<A)[lines 91-94] wm Why Not? (B)-{D) Not supported

 

10. Factual Information I (B)

Q. According to paragraph 5, what was one of the major flaws in Hipparchus’s theories?

Why? -See Clue 10(B)[lines 107-109]

► … Hipparchus was unable to free himself from the influence of Aristotle’s geocentric interpretation of the universe…

Why Not? (A) Not mentioned / (C), (D) Each mentioned in line 95 and lines 85-90, but not the flaw in Hipparchus’s theories

 

11. Insert Text I [A]

Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? Adhering to the scientific method, Hipparchus gathered data, analyzed the collected information, applied theories to his facts, and refrained from proposing theories to explain phenomena about which he did not have enough data. [A] This helped reduce the influence that the various specious arguments polluting contemporary scientific thought had on his findings. Hipparchus’s achievements included the creation of what some argue is the first accurate star map, the calculation of eclipses, the description of lunar and solar motion, and the computation of the length of a year. (B)

► ‘This” in the given sentence refers to Hipparchus’s scientific method.

 

12. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? It is possible to understand the development of ancient Greek astronomy by looking at some of its central figures.

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) Developing Pythagoras’s idea of a spherical Earth, Philolaus suggested that it was not located at the center of the universe. Clue 12(B)[lines 19-21] Pythagoras’s most notable astronomical theory was his conception of the Earth as a spherical celestial body.

[line 36] Philolaus was one of those Pythagoreans [lines 40-43] the model proposed by Philolaus removed the Earth from its position at the center of the universe

(D) The evolution of Greek astronomy was delayed by Aristotle’s Earth-centered theory, which persisted for some time because people respected him and accepted his belief. Clue 12(D)[lines 51-56] Unfortunately this visionary redefinition of the universe was delayed for centuries because prominent philosophers like Aristotle continued to advocate the appealing, albeit incorrect. Earth-centered model of the universe, [lines 78-80] Aristotle’s opinions were simultaneously highly regarded and leniently analyzed
(E) Some of the most important advancements in astronomy were forwarded by Hipparchus, who theorized about eclipses, lunar and solar motion, and the length of a year. [lines 100-105] Hipparchus’s achievements included the creation of what some argue is the first accurate star map, the calculation of eclipses, the description of lunar and solar motion, and the computation of the length of a year.

 

► The whole passage focuses on the central figures who influenced the development of ancient Greek astronomy. And it follows that <(B) Philolaus, who proposed that the Earth was not the center of the universe — (D) Aristotle, who slowed the progress of Greek astronomy — (E) Achievements of Hipparchus) ~See

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 14 Solution & Explanation
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