Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 19 ( From Barron’s TOEFL’S iBT)
Reading 1 “Exam and Endangered Species”
1. C . exotic species … a resident of an established community that was deliberately or accidentally moved from its home range and became established elsewhere.” Choice A is not correct because it refers to an endangered species, not an exotic species. Choice B is not correct because exotic species are moved from their communities. Choice D is not correct because an exotic species becomes established, unlike most imports, which fail to thrive outside of their home range.
2. D “Unlike most imports, which can’t take hold outside their home range, an exotic species permanently insinuates itself [the exotic species] into a new community.” The pronoun “itself does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.
3. B In this passage, connect is a synonym for “bond.” Context comes from the result at the end of the same sentence. “… they started to import familiar animals.”
4. C “… no natural predators… was the reality.” Choice A is not correct because it refers to a solution for the problem, not why the plan failed. Choice B is not correct because Australians imported rabbits because they liked the familiar species. Choice D is not correct because it refers to the reason that the rabbits were introduced, not to why the plan failed.
5. C The rabbits create deserts by eating the vegetation, but they were not moved to deserts.
Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 6. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 7. Choice D is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 9.
6. B “Biting insects, mainly mosquitoes and fleas, quickly transmit the virus from host to host.”
Choice A is not correct because South American rabbits are the normal hosts for the myxoma virus. Choice C is not correct because it is the O. cuniculus rabbit that dies when infected. Choice D is not correct because resistant populations of O. cuniculus rabbits, not fleas, have an immunity to the virus.
7. C “… researchers are now questioning whether… it can … infect animals other than rabbits (such as humans).” Choice A is not correct because insects were not mentioned in the Spencer Gulf experiment. Choice B is not correct because the purpose of the experiment was to kill the rabbits. Choice D is not correct because 80 to 95 percent of the rabbits are being killed, but the small number with immunity is not identified as dangerous.
8. C In this passage, results is a synonym for “consequences.” Context comes from the logical connection between researchers “questioning” and the phrase “long-term,” which describes the “consequences.”
9. D The farm and processing plant will manufacture products from kudzu, which will offer partial solutions. Choice A is not correct because kudzu was imported to control erosion, not for manufacture. Choice B is not correct because no argument is presented in defense of the decision. Choice C is not correct because it grows in Asia already.
10. A In this passage, surpasses is a synonym for “exceeds.” Context comes from the logical relationship between “demand” and “supply.”
11. D “When you hear someone bubbling enthusiastically about an exotic species, you can safely bet the speaker isn’t an ecologist… they [exotic species] make native species endangered species.” This introduction establishes the author’s opinion that exotic species are often disruptive to the ecology.
12. C Vocabulary reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The connection is the reference to “starch” in both the insert sentence and the previous sentence.
13. E, B, C summarize the passage. Choice A is a minor point that refers to major point C. Choice D is a detail that is not developed as a major point. Choice F is an important fact, but it is not a major point because is it not developed.
Reading 2 “Paleolithic Art”
14. C . the remoteness and difficulty of access … suggests]… magical properties … rituals or dances.” Choice A is not correct because they were probably used for rituals. Choices B and D are not mentioned or implied in the passage.
15. D Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 1, sentence 5. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 1, sentence 6. Choice C is implied in paragraph 1, sentences 3 and 5.
16. A In this passage, admissionIs a synonym for “access.” Context comes from the contrast with “remoteness” and “difficulty” in the same sentence.
17. C In this passage, assist is a synonym for “facilitate.” Context comes from the contrast of “destruction” and “survival” in the same and following sentences.
18. C “A central problem for both the … theories is that the animals that seem to have been diet staples of Old Stone Age peoples are not those [animals] most frequently portrayed.” The pronoun “those” does not refer to Choices A, B, or D.
19. B In this passage, the phrase not believed describes “discredited.” Choice A describes distracted. Choice C describes discouraged. Choice D describes disorderly. Context comes from the parts of the word. The prefix dis means “not.” The root credit means “believe.”
20. A It is true paraphrases “cannot… be doubted” and the paintings were meaningful paraphrases “the paintings did have meaning.”
21. B “… and composition (how the motifs are arranged on the surface)____A definition appears within the parentheses that follow the word. Choices A and C are not correct because neither an example nor a contrasting statement is included in reference to the word composition. Although “art historians” are mentioned in a previous sentence about the intent of the paintings, they are not referred to in order to define a word.
22. B “Some researchers have considered them [positive imprints] ‘signatures* of cult or community members, or… individual artists.” Choices A and C are not correct because they are not mentioned or implied. Choice D is not correct because the author states that the “handprints . . . must have had a purpose.”
23. C “Old Stone Age painters and sculptors frequently . . . used the caves* naturally irregular surfaces to help give the illusion of real presence to their forms.” Choice A is not correct because the hardness of the stone is not mentioned. Choice B is not correct because the rock formation, not the animals, provided inspiration. Choice D may have been true, but it is not the reason that they selected certain surfaces in the caves.
24. C Because the author presents several different theories and does not offer a strong argument for any of them, the author’s opinion is probably that the exact purpose of cave paintings is not known. Choice A is not correct because the author also presents the food-creation theory and the mythology theory as alternatives to the hunting ritual theory. Choice B is not correct because the mythology theory is not the only possibility discussed. Choice D is not correct because the author suggests several reasons why this theory cannot explain the narrow range of subjects or the inaccessibility of many of the paintings.
25. B Example is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the general statement in the previous sentence. The connection is between the general statement “animals that seem to have been diet staples . . . are not. . . portrayed” and the example that “red deer, not bison were eaten.”
26. B, D, A summarize the passage. Choice C is true, but it is a minor point that is mentioned as evidence for Choice B. Choice E is not mentioned in the passage. Choice F is true, but it is a point that is used to develop the ideas in Choice A.
Reading 3 “Group Decision Making”
27. A “Groups accumulate more information, knowledge and facts … and often consider more alternatives.” Choice B is not correct because a group tends to view a problem in more than one way. Choice C is not correct because making recommendations instead of decisions is not mentioned or implied in the passage. Choice D is not correct because each person has experience, but the experience of a group is not mentioned as a reason why a group is chosen to participate.
28. B . people will … be more committed to a decision in which they have had a say than to a decision made for them.” Choice A is true, but more ideas do not explain why the decisions are successful. Choice C is not correct because the help provided by a large number of people is not mentioned in the passage as an advantage during implementation. Choice D is not correct because implementation is successful in group decisions, but the decisions themselves may or may not be successful.
29. B In this passage, significant is a synonym for “considerable.” Context comes from the reference to the “time required to make a decision” as a “disadvantage.”
30. D In this passage, As a result describes “Consequently.” Context comes from the conclusion that follows the word “Consequently.”
31. B “One obvious disadvantage of group decision making is the time required to make a decision.”
Choice A is not correct because the implication is that sometimes a decision could have been made as effectively by an individual. Choice C is not correct because the “cost” refers to the time, not to the pay for group members. Choice D is not correct because groups tend to avoid disagreements.
32. B “All group members need to be encouraged and permitted to contribute.” Choice A is not correct because the group should have goals, and personal goals by one member [the leader] should not dominate the discussion. Choice C is not correct because it is considered a disadvantage when an individual such as the group leader dominates the group. Choice D is not correct because expectations are not mentioned as a responsibility of the group leader.
33. B In this passage, debatable is a synonym for “controversial.” Context comes from the contrast with “social pressure … to conform.”
34. C “. .. a group may try too hard to compromise … to maintain friendships and avoid disagreements.” Choice A is not correct because the group may not make optimal decisions when the members try too hard to compromise. Choice B is not correct because groupthink requires agreement rather than compromise. Choice D is not correct because helping one member to reach a personal goal or win an argument would be the opposite of compromise.
35. A “It occurs when groups are highly cohesive, have highly directive leaders, are insulated so they have no dear ways to get objective information, and—because they lack outside information— have little hope that a better solution might be found than the one [solution] proposed by the leader or other influential group members.” The phrase “the one” does not refer to Choices B, C, or D.
36. B “. . . self-appointed ‘mind guards’ . . . bring pressure on dissenters.” Choice A is not correct because people who conform will not necessarily pressure others. Choice C is not correct because “mind guards” use force to exert influence and may not be the most ethical members. Choice D is not correct because “mind guards” do not disagree with the group.
37. C “… decisions … are made without consideration of. .. alternative options.” Choice A is not correct because the group exerts pressure on dissenters, but dissenters do not exert pressure on the group. Choice B is not correct because it is neither mentioned nor implied in the passage. Choice D is not correct because when groupthink takes place, poor decision making and wrong decisions occur.
38. A Generalization and example is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with following sentences. “In fact, the traditional group is prone to a variety of difficulties” provides a general statement that introduces the disadvantages developed in the following sentences. Choices B, C, and D would interrupt the examples by inserting the generalization.
39. Advantages: C, D, H Disadvantages: A, B, E, F Not used: G, I