TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 20 Solution & Explanation

Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 20 ( From Barron’s TOEFL’S iBT)

 

Reading 1 “The Hydrologic Cycle”TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 20 Solution & Explanation

1. B Solar energy is the source of power for the hydrologic cycle paraphrases “The hydrologic cycle is driven by solar energy” and begins by evaporating water from plants, soil, oceans, and freshwater sources paraphrases “evaporates water from oceans, freshwater bodies, soils, and vegetation.”

2. D “The hydrologic cycle is the transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the oceans.” Choices A and B are not correct because they are not complete since they refer to only part of the cycle. Choice C is not correct because it refers to water sources, not the process.

3. D “Of the total 1.3 billion cubic km water on Earth, about 97% is in oceans, and about 2% is in glaciers and ice caps. The rest [of the water] is in freshwater on land and in the atmosphere.” The pronoun phrase “The rest” does not refer to Choices A, B, and C.

4. C “… water on land [freshwater] is important in moving chemicals, sculpturing landscape, weathering rocks, transporting sediments, and providing our water resources.” Choice A is not correct because the rate of evaporation is not compared. Choice B is not correct because 97% of the water is in oceans, not freshwater sources. Choice D is true, but it is not the reason why freshwater is considered important.

5. B “… the building of large dams and reservoirs, can change the amount of water evaporated into the atmosphere and change the location and amount of precipitation on land.” Choice A is not correct because pavement increases flooding. Choice C is not correct because it refers to the purpose of the man-made water sources, not to their effect on the water cycle. Choice D is not correct because aqueducts transport water from the mountains, but they do not improve the flow into the oceans.

6. B In this passage, part is a synonym for “component.” Context comes from the references to “percentages.”

7. C In this passage, basic is a synonym for “fundamental.” Context comes from the usage with “unit,” which is often described as “basic” or “fundamental.”

8. A “A drainage basin is usually named for its main stream or river, such as the Mississippi River drainage basin.” The phrase “such as” signals an example. Choices B, C, and D are true, but they are not the reason that the author mentions the Mississippi River.

9. D “… this relatively small amount of water in the global water cycle {0.001 % of the total water on Earth] . . . produces all our freshwater resources.” Choice A is not correct because the residence time of 9 days is more than one week. Choice B is not correct because both glaciers and oceans are unsuitable for human use. Choice C is not correct because only a relatively small amount of water is in the global water cycle at any one time.

10. C ”… 99% of Earth’s water in its natural state is unavailable or unsuitable for beneficial human use.” Choice A is not correct because total water abundance is not the problem. Choice B is not correct because water can be found at or near the Earth’s surface. Choice D is not correct because the age of water is not mentioned as a safety hazard.

11. C In this passage, important is a synonym for “significant.” Context comes from the numbers in the fraction.

12. C Cause and effect is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The cause is “distribution of water on land is far from uniform” and the result is water shortages in some areas. Choices A, B, and D are not correct because the cause and result are not in consecutive order.

13. C, E, A summarize the passage. Choice B is a minor point that refers to major point C. Choice D can be inferred from the passage, but it is not developed as a major point. Choice F is true but it is not mentioned in the passage.

Reading 2 “Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory”

14. C We engage in both organization of what we see and experience paraphrases”… In addition to organizing our observations and experiences” and adaptation of novel ideas paraphrases “we adapt, adjusting to new environmental demands.”

15. A The concepts are explained by the toddler’s new experience with the car as the child “has assimilated these objects . .. and fine-tunes the category . . . accommodating the scheme.” Choice B is not correct because the concepts, not the demonstration, are the lesson. Choice C is not correct because the toddler solves the problem. Choice D is not correct because the example demonstrates the ways that people adapt, not the stages of development.

16. A In this passage, change is a synonym for “adjust.” Context comes from the reference to “adapt” in a previous sentence.

17. B “Some objects such as fingers and the mother’s breast, can be sucked, but others [other objects], such as fuzzy blankets, should not be sucked.” The noun “others” does not refer to Choices A, C, and D.

18. C In this passage, different is a synonym for “distinct.” Context comes from the reference to “different” in the next sentence.

19. B In this passage, complex is a synonym for “sophisticated.”

20. B “… operations, which are internalized mental actions.” Choice A is not correct because symbolic thought occurs in a later stage, after operations. Choice C is not correct because it occurs in an earlier stage, before operations. Choice D is not correct because the reasoning that children can perform in operational stages does not explain the term operations.

21. B “. . . concrete operational thinkers cannot imagine the steps necessary to complete an algebraic equation, which is too abstract for thinking at this stage.” Choice A is not correct because algebra requires formal, not concrete, operational thinking. Choice C is not correct because a child of 10 has reasoning abilities, if they are applied to concrete examples. Choice D is not correct because it is the abstract nature of the steps, not the number of steps, that makes algebra too difficult for a 10-year old.

22. C “They might think about what an ideal parent is like and compare their parents to this ideal standard.” Choice A is true, but it is not the reason that the author mentions parents. Choices B and D are not mentioned in the passage.

23. A Because the formal operational stage is the last stage in Piaget’s theory, and the age range is between 11 and 15, it must be concluded that people who are older than 15 have completed all of the stages. Choice B is not correct because the age range for the formal operational stage is between 11 and 15. Choice C is not correct because logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought in the concrete operational stage from 7 to 11 years of age. Choice D is not correct because there is no evidence to support this conclusion in the passage.

24. C Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 4, sentence 2. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentences 2 and 3. Choice D is mentioned in paragraph 7, sentences 3 and 4.

25. C Chronological order is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the following sentence. “At the beginning” should appear in the sentence before “At the end” in reference to the sensorimotor stage.

26. E, A, B summarize the passage. Choice C is an explanation of the concrete operational stage, which is a minor point that is used to develop major point B. Choice D is an example of accommodation that supports major point A. Choice F is true, but it is not directly referred to in the passage.

Reading 3 “Conquest by Patents”

27. D “… patents are about the control of technology.” Choices A and B are not correct because protests and lawsuits are caused by patents, but they are not the reason for patents to exist. Choice C is not correct because the “incentive and reward” to inventors is the reason touted [publicized] but not the real reason.

28. D “In the 1760s … Arkwright invented the water-powered spinning frame, a machine destined to bring cotton-spinning out of the home and into the factory. It [a machine] was an invention.” The pronoun “If does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.

29. A Among the laws to protect Britain from competition paraphrases “To protect its [Britain’s] competitive advantage . . . Parliament enacted a series of restrictive measures,” and the textile industry paraphrases “manufactured cloth.”… a ban on exporting Arkwright equipment paraphrases “the prohibition of the export of Arkwright machinery” and the [ban on] emigration of former employees paraphrases “the emigration of any workers who had worked in factories using it [Arkwright machinery].”

30. C “… Samuel Slater, who had worked for years in the Arkwright mills, left England … disguised as a farmer… he was an intellectual property thief.” Choice A is not correct because Slater established the textile mill in America, not in Great Britain. Choice B is not correct because Slater was the only worker from Britain. Choice D is not correct because Slater broke the law.

31. A In this passage, discoveries is a synonym for “innovations.” Context comes from the introduction in the first paragraph that explains the “rights” for “inventors.”

32. B “By the early 1970s… U.S. industry demanded greater protection for its idea-based products.”

Choice A is not correct because the free exchange was favored earlier in the history of the United States. Choice C is not correct because the United States pushed for standards in international trade agreements. Choice D is not correct because the United States blamed the Third World nations for piracy.

33. A “… a counterclaim that these were ‘natural’ or ‘raw* materials and therefore did not qualify for patents.” Choice B is not correct because a high percentage Of the materials originated in plant and animal germplasm taken from the developing world. Choice C is not correct because barely a cent of royalties had been paid. Choice D is a claim against pirates in the Third World, but it is not a justification for using plants and animals from the developing world.

34. B “Such unacknowledged and uncompensated appropriation they named ‘biopiracy.’” Choices A, C, and D are not part of the author’s definition.

35. B In this passage, assist is a synonym for “facilitate.” Context comes from logical reasoning in the sentence that suggests a positive effect. Choice D can be eliminated because it would have a negative effect.

36. D In this passage, ideas is a synonym for “notions.” Context comes from the reference to the abstract concepts of “property and creativity.”

37. A The word “Conquest” conveys the idea of domination, power, and unfair practices. Choices B and C are true, but they do not explain the use of the word “Conquest.” Choice D is not correct because the trade agreements prevent developing nations from exerting the power that they might obtain through ownership of valuable resources.

38. A Chronological order as well as cause and effect are transitional devices that connect the insert sentence with the previous and following sentences. “Arriving in the U.S.” in the insert sentence would have to follow the reference in the previous sentence to the time when Slater “left England for the New World.” The recreation of the factory in the insert sentence was the cause that “enabled the production of commercial-grade cotton cloth in the New World” mentioned in the following sentence.

39. A, D, F summarize the passage. Choices B and C provide an example that develops major point A.

Choice E is a detail that supports major point D.

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 20 Solution & Explanation
5 (100%) 2 votes

Leave a Reply