TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 22 Solution & Explanation

Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 22 from Delta’s Key to the Next Generation TOEFL Test – Six Practice Tests for the iBT by Nancy GallagherTOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 22 Solution & Explanation

1. C The passage states that the main goal of the Dada movement was to destroy traditional standards of art. Clues: Dada was a subversive movement in the arts…; … attempted to discover authentic reality through the destruction of traditional culture and aesthetic forms; Dadaists on both sides of the Atlantic had one goal in common: to demolish current aesthetic standards. (1.1)

2. A The author’s purpose is to explain the origin of the name “Dada.” Clues: The knife pointed to the word dada, a French baby—talk word for a hobby-horse… an appropriate term for their anti-art. (1.6)

3. C The Dadaists mocked society by using “found” objects in works of art. Clues: Dadaists used absurdity to create artworks that mocked society yet defied intellectual analysis, such as the use of “found” objects in sculptures and installations. (1.1)

4. B Forerunner means earliest artist in this context.

Clues: The forerunner of the Dadaists, and ultimately their leading member…; …in 1913 created his first “ready-made,”…. The prefix fore— = before; Duchamp’s first “ready-made” appeared just before the Dada movement was founded in 1916. (1.4)

5. C The passage does not give a soup can as an example of a “ready-made.” All of the other answers are given: …his first “ready-made,” the Bicycle Wheel, consisting of a wheel mounted on the seat of a stool;

… ready-mades—manufactured objects that he selected and exhibited—including a bottle rack and a comb. (1.2)

6. C The referent of them is something that the young artists of the Pop movement embraced. The first part of the sentence mentions ordinary things. Logic tells you that them refers to ordinary things. (1.3)

7. D You can infer that the Pop artists succeeded in changing ideas about art. Clues: … the barrier between “high ” and “low ” art collapsed, which… the Pop artists attained with an energy not seen before. (1.5)

8. B Pop art caught on quickly…eagerly consumed by the masses is paraphrased in The public enthusiastically accepted Pop art…; …it was art about mass consumption… is paraphrased in …which portrayed commercial culture. (1.7)

9. C Roy Lichtenstein created works based on the work of other artists, such as comic strip artists, and on other styles, such as Cubism and Art Deco. Clues: Lichtenstein painted enlarged copies of the least “arty” things he could find: romance and adventure comic strips; Lichtenstein also painted other pictorial styles, including blowups of other artists ’ brushstrokes and parodies of Cubism and Art Deco. (1.1)

10. D Took on means responded to in this context. Clues:

…took on the mind-numbing overload of American mass culture; …mimic the condition of mass advertising; …felt this and embodied it. Warhol’s art was a response to American mass culture. (1.4)

11. A Glut means excess in this context. Clues: … images that become meaningless by being repeated again and again…. (1.4)

12. A In the added sentence, the crisis refers to the First World War, mentioned in the previous sentence. The added sentence further develops the idea in the previous sentence that Dada was the first expression of protest against the war. (1.8)

13. B, E, H Dada: Dada was a subversive movement in the arts…; …an appropriate term for their anti—art; The Dada movement extended to literature and music…; Dada emerged from despair over the First World War…;

.. .protest against the war; … the use of “found” objects in sculptures and installations; …shocked the art establishment with these ready-mades….

A, D, F, I Pop Art: Pop artists were curious about the commercial media of ads, billboards, newsprint, television, and all aspects of popular culture; …considered Pop to be the culture of the mass media…; The subject matter of Pop art was derivative, depicting something that had already been published or produced…; … the first American artist to react to comic strips, finding beauty in these crude designs…; The thirty-two soup cans are about sameness: same brand…; …a famous brand name or the image of a famous person…. Answers (C) and (G) describe neither Dada nor Pop Art. (1.10)

14. A The author makes the point that deforestation in North America occurred mostly within a single century. Clues: …in the eighteenth century, almost one—third of that area was covered with old—growth forests; … nearly 90 percent of the land was thick with forests…; By the end of the nineteenth century, after several decades of intensive deforestation, only half of the original forests remained. (1.1)

15. B The passage does not state that an increase in forest fires contributed to deforestation. All of the other answers are given: Land for agriculture came almost exclusively from clearing forests; …iron makers relied on charcoal, or charred wood, to fire their furnaces; The river steamboats that came into operation after 1830 had a voracious appetite for wood. (1.2)

16. B The referent of they is something that was reduced to concentrated carbon. The previous clause states that charcoal burners made charcoal by burning logs. Logic tells you that they refers to logs.

17. D The author’s purpose is to emphasize that large areas of woodland were eliminated. In this context, toll refers to loss because many trees had to be cut to make charcoal. Clues: …countless acres were cut to feed the furnaces of the iron industry. (1.6)

18. B Voracious means greedy in this context. Clues: …contributed greatly to deforestation; …a voracious appetite for wood; …consumption of wood on riverboats continued to increase…; …stripped of their forests. (1.4)

19. C “Wood hawks ” means people who sold wood in this

context. Clues: The wood was supplied by thousands of… stacks of cut firewood. (1.4)

20. D Surged means increased in this context. Clues:

… immigration and westward expansion surged… railroads swept over the continent; Railroads in the United States and Canada stretched from coast to coast…. (1.4)

21. C You can infer that “iron horses” were steam engines that moved trains. Clues: …hardwood was the preferred fuel of the “iron horses,”…; Not only did wood fuel the steam engines…. (1.5)

22. D More than four out of five of the houses constructed in the early nineteenth century—from log cabins to clapboard cottages… is paraphrased in …the vast majority of houses built in the early nineteenth century:; …were built mainly of wood and roofed with wooden shingles is paraphrased in Wood was the primary construction material…. (1.7)

23. D You can infer that home heating was a major reason for cutting trees in the early nineteenth century. Clues: Two-thirds of all households in North America were heated by open, wood-burning fireplaces, and it took between 10 and 20 acres of forest to keep a single fireplace burning for one year (1.5)

24. C The tremendous increase in the production of lumber was primarily due to innovations in technology. Clues: …the annual production of lumber rose from 1.6 million to 8 billion board feet. This increase was made possible by the widespread application of steam power. Wood-fueled steam engines…; Railroad lines…; These innovations had their greatest impact…. (1.1)

25. A The added sentence introduces the idea that the timber industry led all others in the exploitation of North American forests. The rest of the paragraph develops this idea with facts and details: …the timber industry continued to supply the single most valuable raw material…; …the annual production of lumber rose…; …the widespread application of steam power. (1.8)

26. B, C, F Key information: The demand for farmland and timber continued to soar…more than 100 million acres of old-growth forest had been cut or burned off…; …iron makers relied on charcoal, or charred wood, to fire their furnaces; …countless acres were cut to feed the furnaces of the iron industry; The river steamboats…had a voracious appetite for wood; …the “iron horses,” which required the cutting of 215,000 acres of woodland…; More than four out of five of the houses constructed in the early nineteenth century… were built mainly of wood and roofed with wooden shingles; …the annual production of lumber rose…; This increase was made possible by the widespread application of steam power; …the technology of the timber industry had triumphed over the natural abundance of the forests, and woodlands that had once seemed endless were now depleted. Answers (A) and (D) are minor ideas; answer (E) is not mentioned.

27. D Only in recent years have health professionals begun to realize… is paraphrased in Health professionals have just started to understand…; …the prevalence and severity of sleep deprivation in the working population is paraphrased in … that sleep deprivation in workers is a serious problem. (1.7)

28. C The passage does not give boring work as a cause of sleep deprivation. All of the other answers are given: A significant number of people work at night, work long shifts, or suffer from.. jet lag. (1.2)

29. C Deprived of means kept from in this context. Clues: ,1.sleep deprivation…; …work at night, work long shifts, or suffer from insomnia or jet lag; …deprived of sleep because they work too hard, stay out too late, or try to do too many things in a day; …sleep six hours or less…. (1.4)

30. B Adversely means negatively in this context. Clues: … certain patterns of electrical and chemical activity that occur during sleep are interrupted and the brain cannot function normally. The passage mainly discusses the negative effects of sleep deprivation. (1.4)

31. D The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of sleep deprivation on brain activity. Clues: The scans recorded each subject’s brain activity from a rested state through various stages of sleep deprivation…. (1.1)

32. C The referent of others is something in which there was decreased activity. The sentence states that the images showed increased activity in some regions of the brain and decreased activity in others. Logic tells you that others refers to regions of the brain. (1.3)

33. B The researchers learned that subjects who had gone several hours without sleep had no activity in part of the brain during verbal tasks. Clues: …the temporal lobe of the brain, the region involved in language processing, was activated during verbal tasks in rested subjects but not in sleep-deprived subjects; …after several hours without sleep, there was no activity within this region. (1.1)

34. B The author’s purpose is to compare the effects of sleep deprivation and alcohol. Clues: …researchers reported that sleep deprivation had some of the same hazardous effects as being drunk; …people who drove after being awake for 17 to 19 hours performed worse than those with a blood alcohol level of. 05 percent…. (1.6)

35. A You can infer that medical personnel and other emergency workers are at risk for experiencing anxiety and depression. Clues: Drivers who get too little sleep may have higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression…. These dangers affect not only drivers but also people who work long shifts or night shifts, such as medical personnel and other emergency workers. (1.5)

36. C Sleep deprivation can affect the body’s immune system by reducing the body’s ability to make or use insulin. Clues: Sleep deprivation has been linked to a decrease in the body 3? production of hormones such as insulin; …the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use the insulin that is present. (1.1)

37. D Setting the stage means providing the conditions in this context. Clues: Sleep deprivation weakens the immune system, making an individual more prone to diseases…; …glucose builds up in the bloodstream, setting the stage for diabetes and heart disease. (1.4)

38. B The added sentence introduces the topic of drivers, which the next sentence develops by discussing a study of drivers. (1.8)

39. C, E, F Key information : …the brain is a affected by sleep deprivation because certain patterns of electrical and chemical activity that occur during sleep are interrupted and the brain cannot function normally; …after several hours without sleep, there was no activity within this region. The effects of the inactivity included slurred speech…; …getting fewer than six hours of sleep a night can impair… coordination, reaction time, and judgment…;

In one study of drivers, researchers reported that sleep deprivation had some of the same hazardous effects as being drunk; The dangers of sleep deprivation… undermine all areas of an individual s physical and mental health;

Sleep deprivation weakens the immune system, making an individual more prone to diseases…. Answers (A) and (D) are minor ideas; answer (B) is not mentioned. (1.9)

 

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 22 Solution & Explanation
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