TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 45 from The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 45 from The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test

*Note: If you need the answer key for this test, please comment your email below. Therefore, we can send it for you immediately!!

Reading Directions: This section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English.

The Reading section is divided into separately timed parts.

Most questions are worth 1 point, but the last question for each passage is worth more than 1 point. The directions for the last question indicate how many points you may receive. You will now begin the Reading section. There are three passages in the section. You should allow 20 minutes to read each passage and answer the questions about it. You should allow 60 minutes to complete the entire section.

Passage 1: 

P1: The work of the railroad pioneers in America became the basis for a great surge of railroad building halfway through the nineteenth century that linked the nation together as never before. Railroads eventually became the nation’s number one transportation system, and remained so until the construction of the interstate highway system halfway through the twentieth century. They were of crucial importance in stimulating economic expansion, but their influence reached beyond the economy and was pervasive in American society at large.

P2: By 1804, English as well as American inventors had experimented with steam engines for moving land vehicles. In 1920, John Stevens ran a locomotive and cars around in a circular track on his New Jersey estate, which the public saw as an amusing toy. And in 1825, after opening a short length of track, the Stockton to Darlington Railroad in England became the first line to carry general traffic. American businesspeople, especially those in the Atlantic coastal region who looked for better communication with the West, quickly became interested in the English experiment. The first company in America to begin actual operations was the Baltimore and Ohio, which opened a thirteen- mile length of track in 1830. It used a team of horses to pull a train of passenger carriages and freight wagons along the track. Steam locomotive power didn’t come into regular service until two years later.

P3: However, for the first decade or more, there was not yet a true railroad system. Even the longest of the lines was relatively short in the 1830’s, and most of them served simply to connect water routes to each other, not to link one railroad to another. Even when two lines did connect, the tracks often differed in width, so cars from one line couldn’t fit onto tracks of the next line. Schedules were unreliable and wrecks were frequent. Significantly, however, some important developments during the 1830’s and 1840’s included the introduction of heavier iron rails, more flexible and powerful locomotives, and passenger cars were redesigned to become more stable, comfortable, and larger. By the end of 1830 only 23 miles of track had been laid in the country. But by 1936, more than 1,000 miles of track had been laid in eleven States, and within the decade, almost 3,000 miles had been constructed. By that early age, the United States had already surpassed Great Britain in railroad construction, and particularly from the mid-1860’s, the late nineteenth century belonged to the railroads.

1. The word “stimulating” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
A) helping
(B) changing
(C) promoting
(D) influencing

2. The word “their” in paragraph 1 refers to
(A) railroad pioneers
(B) railroads
(C) the interstate highway system
(D) American society

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The United States regarded Great Britain as a competitor in developing the most efficient railroad system
(B) Steam locomotive power was first used in 1832
(C) American businessmen saw railroads as a threat to established businesses
(D) Steam locomotives replaced horses because of the distances across the country

4. The author concludes that for the first decade or more, there was not yet a true railroad system because
(A) passenger cars were not stable, comfortable or large
(B) locomotives were not powerful enough
(C) schedules were unreliable and wrecks were frequent
(D) lines were relatively short and not usually linked

5. The word “schedules” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:
(A) safety procedures
(B) employees
(C) timetables
(D) railroad tracks

6. Which of the following is NOT true about the 1830’s and 1840’s (line 24)
(A) passenger cars became larger
(B) schedules were reliable
(C) locomotives became more powerful
(D) tracks were heavier

7. The word “stable” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) fixed
(B) supportive
(C) reliable
(D) sound

8. By what time had almost 3,000 miles of track been laid?
(A) 1830
(B) 1836
(C) 1840
(D) mid-1860s

9. The word “surpassed” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) exceeded
(B) beaten
(C) overtaken
(D) equaled

10. Where in the passage does the author outline the main conclusions about the importance of railroads in America?
(A) […never before. Railroads eventually became the nation’s number one transportation system, and remained so until the construction of the interstate highway system halfway through the twentieth century. They were of crucial importance in stimulating economic expansion, but their influence reached beyond the economy and was pervasive in American society at large. …]
(B) [...the West, quickly became interested in the English experiment. The first company in America to begin actual operations was the Baltimore and Ohio, which opened a thirteen- mile length of track in 1830. It used a team of horses to pull a train of passenger carriages and freight wagons along the track. Steam locomotive power didn’t come into regular service until two years later.…]
(C) [… However, for the first decade or more, there was not yet a true railroad system. Even the longest of the lines was relatively short in the 1830’s, and most of them served simply to connect water routes to each other, not to link one railroad to another. Even when two  …]
(D) […constructed. By that early age, the United States had already surpassed Great Britain in railroad construction, and particularly from the mid-1860’s, the late nineteenth century belonged to the railroads. …]

11. Why does the author include details about Great Britain in the passage?
(A) To compare developments in both the United States and Great Britain
(B) To illustrate the competitiveness between the two countries
(C) To show where Americans got their ideas and technology from
(D) To provide a more complete historical context

Passage 2: 

P1: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually and the first woman to win this prize was Baroness Bertha Felicie Sophie von Suttner in 1905. In fact, her work inspired the creation of the Prize. The first American woman to win this prize was Jane Addams, in 1931. However, Addams is best known as the founder of Hull House.

P2: Jane Addams was born in 1860, into a wealthy family. She was one of a small number of women in her generation to graduate from college. Her commitment to improving the lives of those around her led her to work for social reform and world peace. In the 1880s Jane Addams traveled to Europe. While she was in London, she visited a ‘settlement house’ called Toynbee Hall. Inspired by Toynbee Hall, Addams and her friend, Ellen Gates Starr, opened Hull House in a neighborhood of slums in Chicago in 1899. Hull House provided a day care center for children of working mothers, a community kitchen, and visiting nurses. Addams and her staff gave classes in English literacy, art, and other subjects. Hull House also became a meeting place for clubs and labor unions. Most of the people who worked with Addams in Hull House were well educated, middle-class women. Hull House gave them an opportunity to use their education and it provided a training ground for careers in social work.

P3: Before World War I, Addams was probably the most beloved woman in America. In a newspaper poll that asked, “Who among our contemporaries are of the most value to the community?”, Jane Addams was rated second, after Thomas Edison. When she opposed America’s involvement in World War I, however, newspaper editors called her a traitor and a fool, but she never changed her mind. Jane Addams was a strong champion of several other causes. Until 1920, American women could not vote. Addams joined in the movement for women’s suffrage and was a vice president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. She was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and was president of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. . Her reputation was gradually restored during the last years of her life. She died of cancer in 1935.

12. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?
(A) The first award of the Nobel Peace Prize to an American woman
(B) A woman’s work for social reform and world peace
(C) The early development of Social Work in America
(D) Contributions of educated women to American society

13. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) the work of Baroness Bertha Felicie Sophie von Suttner was an inspiration to Jane Addams
(B) Jane Addams is most famous for her opening of Hull House
(C) those who lived near Hull House had very poor literacy skills
(D) Jane Addams considered herself as a citizen of the world rather than of one particular country

14. The word “commitment” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) involvement
(B) obligation
(C) dedication
(D) enthusiasm

15. Jane Addams was inspired to open Hull House because:
(A) it gave educated women an opportunity to use their education and develop careers in social work
(B) she traveled to Europe in the 1880s
(C) she visited Toynbee Hall
(D) she was invited by a ‘settlement house’ in Chicago

16. The word “their” in paragraph 2 refers to
(A) children of working mothers
(B) middle-class women
(C) visiting nurses
(D) labor union members

17. The word “contemporaries” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) people of the same time
(B) famous people still alive
(C) elected officials
(D) people old enough to vote

18. According to the passage, Jane Addams’ reputation was damaged when she
(A) allowed Hull House to become a meeting place for clubs and labor unions
(C) joined in the movement for women’s suffrage
(C) became a founding member of the NAACP
(D) opposed America’s involvement in World War I

19. Where in the passage does the author mention the services provided by Hull House?
(A) […Jane Addams was born in 1860, into a wealthy family. She was one of a small number of women in her generation to graduate from college. Her commitment to improving the lives of those around her led her to work for social reform and world peace. In the 1880s Jane Addams traveled to Europe. While she was in London, she visited a ‘settlement house’ called Toynbee Hall. Inspired by Toynbee Hall, Addams and her friend, Ellen Gates Starr, opened Hull House in a neighborhood of slums in Chicago in 1899. Hull …]
(B) […Hull House provided a day care center for children of working mothers, a community kitchen, and visiting nurses. Addams and her staff gave classes in English literacy, art, and other subjects. Hull House also became a meeting place for clubs and labor unions. Most of the people who worked with Addams in Hull House were well educated, middle-class women. Hull House gave them an opportunity to use their education and it provided a training…]
(C) […
Hull House gave them an opportunity to use their education and it provided a training ground for careers in social work. Before World War I, Addams was probably the most beloved woman in America. In a newspaper poll that asked, “Who among our contemporaries are of the most value to the community?”, Jane Addams was rated second, after Thomas Edison. When she opposed America’s involvement in World War I, however, newspaper editors called her a traitor and…]
(D) […America’s involvement in World War I, however, newspaper editors called her a traitor and a fool, but she never changed her mind. Jane Addams was a strong champion of several other causes. Until 1920, American women could not vote. Addams joined in the movement for women’s suffrage and was a vice president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. She was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and was president of the Women’s …]

Passage 3: 

P1: The medieval artists didn’t know about perspective; they didn’t want to make their people look like real, individual people in a real, individual scene. They wanted to show the truth, the eternal quality of their religious stories. So these artists didn’t need to know about perspective.

P2: In the European Renaissance period, artists wanted to show the importance of the individual person and his or her possessions and surroundings. A flat medieval style couldn’t show this level of reality and the artists needed a new technique. It was the Italian artist Brunelleschi who discovered the technique of perspective drawing. At first the artists of the Renaissance only had single-point perspective. Later they realized that they could have two-pointed perspective and still later multi-point perspective.

P3: With two-point perspective they could turn an object (like a building) at an angle to the picture and draw two sides of it. The technique of perspective which seems so natural to us now is an invented technique, a part of the “grammar of painting”. Like all bits of grammar there are exceptions about perspective. For example, only vertical and horizontal surfaces seem to meet on eye level. Sloping roof tops don’t meet on eye level.

P4: For 500 years, artists in Europe made use of perspective drawing in their pictures. Nevertheless, there are a range of priorities that artists in displaying individual styles. Crivelli wanted to show depth in his picture and he used a simple single-point perspective. Cezanne always talked about space and volume. Van Gogh, like some of the other painters of the Impressionist period, was interested in Japanese prints. And Japanese artists until this century were always very strong designers of “flat” pictures. Picasso certainly made pictures which have volume and depth. However, he wanted to keep our eyes on the surface and to remind us that his paintings are paintings and not illusions.

P5: It is technically easy to give an illusion of depth. However, a strong two dimensional design is just as important as a feeling of depth, and perhaps more important.

20. The passage mainly discusses
(A) the difference between medieval and Renaissance art
(B) how the technique of perspective influenced the modern art
(C) the discovery of the technique of perspective
(D) the contribution of Renaissance artists

21. The word “eternal” in passage 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) timeless
(B) infinite
(C) frequent
(D) constant

22. According to the passage, which is the main concern for medieval artists?
(A) the individual person and his/her possessions and surroundings
(B) real people, real scenes
(C) eternal timeless truth of the earth
(D) themes of religious stories

23. The discovery of perspective was the result of
(A) Renaissance artists’ to prove that the medieval artists could show level of reality
(B) the need to turn an object at an angle and draw more than one side of it
(C) the subject being shifted from religious stories to individual person and surroundings.
(D) natural evolution of human senses

24. The word “it” in paragraph 3 refers to
(A) the picture
(B) perspective
(C) angle
(D) the object

25. The word “Grammar ” paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) construction
(B) grammatical rules
(C) rules and regulations
(D) tones and volume

26. The author’s purpose to give the example in “..For example, only vertical and horizontal surfaces seem to meet on eye level. Sloping roof tops don’t meet on eye level.” is to
(A) explain how perspective work in painting
(B) support two-pointed perspective
(C) illustrate that there are exceptions about perspective
(D) point out that the technique of perspective though seems so natural is an invented technique

27. The following artists’ priorities in style shift away from perspective EXCEPT
(A) Crivelli
(B) Cezanne
(C) Japanese artists
(D) Brunelleschi

28. The word ”Illusion” in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) deception
(B) photograph
(C) decoration
(D) illustration

29. It can be inferred from the passage that Renaissance artists
(A) embraced the medieval style of eternal truth
(B) needed to develop a new approach towards painting to show a new level of reality
(C) were inspired by vertical and horizontal surfaces in inventing the technique of perspective
(D) saw two dimensional design more important than a feeling of depth

TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 45 from The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test
5 (100%) 2 votes

7 Comments

  1. JOSE Reply
    • Wiki TOEFL Reply
  2. khushboo Reply
  3. randive vinuka Reply
    • Wiki TOEFL Reply
  4. Claire E Reply

Leave a Reply